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Flashcards in Introduction to Path Deck (38):
1

HAT vs. HDAC proteins

HAT (histone acetyl transferase): opens up chromatin to allow gene translocation (euchromatin)
HDAC: removes acetyl group causing histone to close up chromatin (heterochromatin), which prevents gene translocation.

2

Types and function of Non-coding mRNA

miRNA: used in post translational silencing

lncRNA: modulate gene expression, ie XIST gene, which turns off X chromosome making Barr body.

3

Phosphatidylinositol

Found on the inner membrane
Used for protein scaffolding for intracellular proteins
PLC can break it down to make IP3 and DAG

4

Phosphatidylserine

Found in the inner membrane
If it is on the outer membrane it becomes a cell marker for phagocytosis.
Cofactor for platelet activation

5

Cancer type if ... is found in high concentration

Lamin A, B, and C
Vimentin
Desmin
Neurofiliments
Glial fibrillary acidic protein

Lamin=nuclear lamina in calls

Vimentin= mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts/endothelium)

Desmin: skeletal muscle

Neurofiliments: Axons of neurons

Glial fibrillary acidic protein: glial cells around neurons.

6

Progeria

When a person gets premature old age because of a lamin mutation

7

Dynein vs. Kinesin

Dynein: retrograde transportation (to nucleus)

Kinesin: anterograde transport (away from nucleus)

8

Cystic Fibrosis

CFTR defect: chloride channel defect

Protein can't fold properly, can trigger ER stress response

9

I-cell disease

Golgi is unable to put Mannose 6 phosphate on the vesicle, so the enzymes can't be sent to the lysosome.
Patient will die due to lack of function of white blood cells.

10

Warburg effect

Increased uptake of glucose and glutamine in cells but a decreased net ATP made per glucose molecule break down because carbon units being diverted to cell division prerequisites (HMP shunt pathway).

This happens in normal cells in G1/G2 phase and in cancer cells.

11

Necrosis

Cell death by disruption of the mitochondria.

The mitochondria leaks into the cell causing a drop in the pH, which leads to cell death.

12

Apoptosis

Programed cell death, which can be caused by
Cytochrome C release (inhibition of BLC-2)

13

Receptor Type for insulin

RTK

14

Growth factors likeEGF, PDGF, TGF... use which receptor type?

RTK

15

HER2 mutation (ERBB mutation)

Leads to breast cancer

16

HGF (scatter factor)

Mitogenic effects on hepatocytes, epithelial cells, biliary, pulmonary, renal, mammillary, and epidermal cells.
Plays a huge role in development and cell migration
Produced by mesenchymal cells, endothelial cells, and liver cells.

17

PDGF: function & origin

Made from platelets, macrophages, endothelium, and smooth muscle

Function: proliferation for fibroblast, endothelial, and smooth muscle.

18

VEGF

Protein involved in angiogenesis of blood vessels. It is also used in lymphocyte development, vascular dilation, and permeability.

19

FGF

Associated with heperan sulfate in ECM

Used for wound healing, hematopoiesis, and development.

20

TGF-Beta (fibronective agent)

Functions: activate bone morphogenic protein (BMP), activins, inhibins, and mullein inhibiting substance.

Origin: platelets, endothelium, and mononuclear inflammatory cells (B/T cells)

Too much will cause hypertrophic scars, systemic sclerosis, marphans syndrome, and a strong anti-inflammatory effect.

21

GPCR MOA 3 types

Gq:causes activation of PLC, which makes IP3 and DAG,
Gs: formation of cAMP, which causes phosphorylation of proteins in the cell.
Gi: inhibits aldenylyl cyclase, which prevents the activation of cAMP.

22

Basement membrane components

Collagen type 4, proteoglycan, and laminin.

23

RTK MOA

Akt, MAP-kinase (Ras/Raf), and IP3 pathway.

24

Collagen type 1: Origin & Defect

Origin: Bones

Defect: Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

25

Collagen Type 2: Origin & Defect

Origin: Cartilage, intervertebral disks

Defect: Achondrogenesis type 2, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia syndrome.

26

Collagen type 3: Origin & Defect

Origin: Hollow organs and soft tissue

Defect: Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

27

Collagen type 4: Origin & Defect

Origin: Basement membrane

Defect: Alport Syndrome

28

Collagen type 5: Origin & Defect

Origin: Soft tissues, blood vessels

Defect: Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

29

Collagen type 7: Origin & Defect

Origin: Anchoring fibrils at dermal-epidermal junction

Defect: Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

30

Marfan syndrome

Defect in fibrillin

The patient will be very tall and lanky (Abraham Lincoln), they will have ectopic lens, and cardiovascular symptoms.

31

Rb gene: function

Function is to prevent the cell from advancing into S phase.

Defective will lead to retinoblastoma.

32

p53 function

Function: guardian of the genome, prevents cell from leaving G1 phase

33

Niche cell

Special type of microenvironment in which somatic stem cells live in.

34

Where are liver stem cells found?

Canal of Hering

35

Where are the brains neural stem cells found?

Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.

36

Labile cells

Cells that are continuously dividing (hematopoietic stem cells)

37

Stable cells

Cells that can divide but a limited amount of division (generally in G0 phase, liver)

38

Permanent cells

Cells that don't divide (cardiac cells, stuck in G0).