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1

The discipline of science that studies the 4 spheres of research associated with the Earth and its existence within the context of the universe; astronomy, geology, oceanography, and biology.

Earth Science

2

The dynamic mass of water that is continually in movement, from oceans to the atmosphere.

Hydrosphere

3

The life giving gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth and provides the air we breathe, and protects us from the sun’s heat and radiation

Atmosphere

4

Includes all life on Earth, and consists of all of the other spheres in which living organisms can be found. Without it, every other sphere would be drastically different

Biosphere

5

Extends from the surface of the earth to the core of the Earth, and consists of all the material features and processes it comprises

Geosphere

6

A group of interacting or interdependent parts that form a complex whole

System

7

Everything that surrounds and influences an organism

Environment

8

The nonliving influences resulting from the environment onto an organism

Physical Environment

9

Phenomenon associated with the four spheres of Earth and Space science that prove exceptionally dangerous to life

Natural Hazards

10

Studies the material composition of the Earth and attempts to understand the processes and material conditions that operate beneath and upon its surface

Physical Geology

11

Examines the beginning of the Earth and how the Earth has changed throughout time.

Historical Geology

12

How much of the earth’s surface is covered by the oceans?

71%

13

How much of the Earth’s water is contained in the oceans?

97%

14

What are the layers of the Earth based upon chemical composition?

Crust, mantle, and core

15

In terms of chemical composition, this is the thin and rocky outer skin of the Earth, of which there are two types; oceanic, and continental.

Crust

16

In terms of chemical composition, this is a 5 mile thick layer of basalt with a low density. It is up to 180 million years old.

Oceanic crust

17

In terms of chemical composition, this is 35 miles thick and is a layer primarily composed of granite. It is up to 4 billion years old.

Continental crust

18

In terms of chemical composition, this is a solid and rocky shell that contains over 82% of the Earth’s volume and extends to depths of 1800 miles (2896.819km)

The mantle

19

In terms of chemical composition, this iron nickel alloy, approximately 2164 miles thick, is an incredibly dense layer of the Earth.

The core