Investigation Flashcards Preview

Crime Scene Investigation INV 104 > Investigation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Investigation Deck (234)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the glossary definition of Admissible?

Evidence allowable and can be accepted by the court. Investigators must establish the relevance of the exhibit to the case under investigation. They must be able to demonstrate the reliability of the evidence through the integrity of the chain of evidence process.

2

What is the glossary definition of Biological Material, and what are the four categories of it?

Matter of an organic nature that can provide links directly two a person. Four categories:

Body fluids (blood, saliva, semen etc)
Trace biological (epithelial cells, trans. through contact)
Hairs (Hair shaft only, hair with root)
Toxicology (drugs in blood, urine, hair)

3

What is the glossary definition of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis?

Reveals much information for crime scene reconstruction by providing vital information about an assault. Can be found on victim, assailant or surface. Many types including: cast-off, pooled, dripped, spattered, arterial spurting, backspatter, latent. Must be undertaken by ESR at scene examination - cannot be completed retrospectively from photographs.

4

What is the glossary definition of Chain of Evidence?

A chain of evidence is the record of all the people who have had custody of an exhibit since it was first discovered, to it's presentation at court and it's security in Police records. O/C Exhibits is appointed to safeguard this during serious criminal investigation.

5

What is the glossary definition of a cold zone?

The area in the outer cordon of the scene. From here, O/C Scene manages scene examination and staff involved, eg briefings/debriefings, meals, maintaining records etc.

6

What is the glossary definition of contamination?

When material is added to an exhibit post incident, such as when humans or animals enter the scene. For example, a police officer leaving their fingerprints on a surface.

7

What is the glossary definition of a control sample?

Samples of known origin that can be compared with materials found on items being examined. Otherwise known as a reference sample.

8

What is the glossary definition of cross contamination?

Contamination that occurs through the exchange of traces of forensic material between the offender, the crime scene, the victim and other people. Can also occur through secondary transfer.

9

What is the glossary definition of degrade?

Over time, all biological material will break down naturally, however technological developments mean it could still be possible to retrieve fingerprints and DNA from decomposed samples. ESR experts must be the people to examine/uplift/analyse degraded biological material.

10

What is the glossary definition of DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid - the genetic material carried by all living things. DNA samples are used to distinguish between individuals.

11

What is the glossary definition of a DNA profile?

A profile generated from the analysis of an individual's DNA, stored on a national DNA database at ESR. There is another database, the "crime sample" database, which contains DNA profiles from unsolved crimes.

12

What is the glossary definition of an elimination sample?

Elimination samples are samples taken from people who are not connected with the offence but who may have come into contact with the evidence - to separate out the subject's DNA from the suspect's.

13

What is the glossary definition of entomological samples?

Samples of insects collected from a scene that can assist with objective scientific evidence.

14

What is the glossary definition of forensic material?

Material of a biological or physical nature collected as evidence. Must be analysed to provide both objective and data determining it's relevance to the investigation.

15

What is the glossary definition of the Golden Hour?

The period immediately after an offence when material is abundant and readily available for collection.

16

What is the glossary definition of the Hot Zone?

The hot zone is the part of the scene requiring examination and evidence protection. It is closely controlled by O/C scene. Exhibits are collected and packaged for forensic analysis in the hot zone.

17

What is the glossary definition of Impressions?

An impression is evidence of a biological or physical nature left at a crime scene. It is a key example of "every contact will leave a trace". Should be photographed in situ before an attempt is made to lift it. Generally require specialised collection and packaging.

18

What is the glossary definition of Intangible?

Not able to be touched, not having physical presence. Example - email address or information held on an internet data storage facility.

19

What is the glossary definition of Integrity of Evidence?

The integrity of evidence is protected through ensuring access to scene is controlled and documented, forensic examination is done by personnel with knowledge of scientific method and who are suitably trained/qualified and the chain of evidence is secure.

20

What is the glossary definition of Latent Samples?

Latent samples are those that are hidden or concealed - for example fingerprints or bloodstains that cannot be seen by the naked eye.

21

What is the glossary definition of the Order of Examination?

Means the preferred sequence of analysis, determined by investigative need. Experts determine which examination should occur first.

22

What is the glossary definition of Persistence?

Length of time forensic material is able to be detected following a crime. Can be affected by natural causes (eg weather) or intervention by humans or other animals. Key reason why prompt and effective action is required by the investigators.

23

What is the glossary definition of Physical Evidence?

Materials examined to establish links between things, by way of physical fit, impressions, composition, residue they may leave. Example - Piece of broken indicator light left at a hit-and-run.

24

What is the glossary definition of Physical Fit?

Involves fitting together two or more objects to see if they were originally part of the same item.

25

What is the glossary definition of Primary Transfer?

The direct transfer of forensic material from one party to another, generally requiring contact between the parties. Example - offender's blood on victim's clothing.

26

What is the glossary definition of Relevance?

It is a fundamental principle that relevant evidence is admissible - forensic evidence does not rely on what people said or observed. Provides links and unbiased objective scientific information to confirm it's own relevance.

27

What is the glossary definition of Secondary Transfer?

Indirect transfer of evidence to a third party. Example, shirt fibres from one person to another via a third person, without any contact between the two persons with shirt fibres on them.

28

What is the glossary definition of Significance?

The evidential value of the material sample for the evidence collection. Example - where an exhibit was found in relevance to the investigation.

29

What is the glossary definition of Tangible?

Perceptible by touch. For example, a physical exhibit such as a knife.

30

What is the glossary definition of Toxicology?

The analysis of body samples for alcohol, drugs or poisons. Includes detection in blood, urine, hair and fingernails.

31

What is the glossary definition of Trace Evidence?

Microscopic or minute samples of evidence. Can include things such as epithelial (skin) cells, or other things like fibres, glass, paint, firearm discharge or pollen.

32

What is the glossary definition of Transfer?

In a forensic context, transfer means the exchange of material traces between the offender, crime scene and victim that can occur during and post incident.

33

What is the glossary definition of Warm Zone?

Transition area where:

Scene examiners put on and take off protective clothing.
Scene examiners access equipment.
The O/C exhibits recieves and records exhibits.

34

What is the glossary definition of the Zone Model?

Also referred to as Decontamination Zones. Contains Cold, Warm and Hot Zones. Zoning helps avoid contamination of scene and exhibits.

35

What action should be taken when en route to a serious crime by the attending unit in terms of initial action?

Obtain all available information, including descriptions. Plan approach, discussing with your offsider.

36

What action should be taken when arriving at the scene of a serious crime by the attending unit in terms of initial action?

Note and stop any vehicles attempting to leave, park in a clear safe area. Take note of what is happening and where. Identify an SFP. Approach scene and locate informant, obtaining basic circumstances. Arrange for detailed interview/statement. Identify any interference to the scene, and record/mark out a clear approach - do not use the path taken by the suspect and take care not to contaminate or destroy evidence.

37

What is the first thing that should be seen to at a serious crime scene, after it is established that the scene is safe?

The victim/any other injured person at the scene. You must preserve life (first aid, ambulance) and protect them from further injuries, conducting a brief preliminary interview if possible. Note or record the victim's position before they are moved. Accompany to hospital if transported there, preserving clothing and obtaining details of Doctor and ambulance personnel.

38

What action should be undertaken by the initial attending unit at a crime scene, when the victim is not showing any signs of life?

Check for signs of life but do not move the body unless absolutely necessary. Attempt to resuscitate as and where appropriate. If you have to move the body do not attempt to return it to the original position. Record everything that you can see. Note condition of clothing. If possible sketch a plan of the scene.

39

What are the summarising points of actions to be taken by the initial attending unit at a serious crime scene?

Victim: Assess risks on information available.
Plan your response and approach. Preserve life. Preliminary interview.

Scene: Set path in and out. Clear. Boundaries. Guard. Freeze. Control. Preserve. Observe. Note and record.

Witnesses: Separate. Contain. Preliminary interview.

Suspects: Separate. Contain. Preliminary search. Note demeanor. Consider preliminary interview. Record comments.

40

What actions should be taken in order to freeze, control and preserve a scene?

Remove people and separate if possible. Obtain details and conduct prelim interviews. Find out if anyone has left. Stop all movement to and from the scene and all activity within the contained area. Keep scene log. Ensure nothing is touched or moved - make a sketch and take notes. Protect all exhibits. Establish boundaries and appoint scene guards. Be prepared to take immediate action with regard to preserving evidence.

41

What are the duties of a scene guard?

Prevent unauthorised entry, maintain a register, ensure anyone entering is directed through common approach path, record all movement and vehicle details to and near the scene, communicate information to OC scene, not personally enter or interfere or contaminate the scene, be vigilant of animals. remain on duty until relieved, brief oncoming scene guard, do not discuss crime with witnesses or bystanders, use tact and courtesy when dealing with civilian witnesses and crowds, report any actions taken to OC scene.

42

What are the points that should be recovered by the initial attending unit at a serious crime scene regarding SITREPs?

What you know
What action has been taken
What assistance you need
Provide SFP
Keep Comms informed
Be prepared to brief senior officer.

43

What should be covered off with regard to dealing with the suspect by the initial attending unit at a serious crime scene?

Ensure they do not leave but only arrest if absolutely necessary.

Separate from witnesses/other suspects.

Note appearance, conduct and demeanor.

Caution if necessary.

Conduct preliminary search and prevent disposal of evidence.

Consider conducting preliminary interview. Record everything the suspect says.

44

What action should be taken by the initial attending unit at a serious crime scene when help and support arrives?

Uniform staff: Brief, strengthen scene guards.

CIB members: Advise what has been, is being and what needs to be done.

OC Scene: Informed of any action taken that may adversely affect the scene.

45

What are the initial actions that should be taken by an OC scene?

Before arriving, ensure: Sufficient staff dispatched, necessary equipment sent/requested, specialists contacted, roadblocks/cordons set up, employees briefed, OC's appointed.

Upon arrival: Obtain briefing, ensure scene cleared and witnesses/suspects taken to station, check scene boundaries, ensure scene guards briefed, refer media personnel to OC investigation, brief all staff at scene, establish scene log and common approach path, make prelim recon, liase with OC investigation RE OC exhibits, establish zoning method, make SITREPs, brief crime scene examiner taking over from OC scene.

46

What are the three primary functions of initial Police responders to homicide or serious crime?

Attending the scene at an early stage, taking control of the situation, and co-ordinating tasks.

47

What are some examples of incidents that are notified to Police that could later be discovered to be a homicide?

2M, cot death, unexplained 1S, abduction, violence where no fatalities are anticipated, crime scene with no body, hit-and-run 1V, 1X, fatal fire, drug related deaths.

48

What is the general investigation model that should be applied to all cases of initial response?

VAWSEIPO.

49

What are the 6 basic principles that underpin all serious crime investigations?

Appreciation process, Preserve life, Preserve scene, Identify and apprehend suspects, Secure evidence, Identify victim

50

What are the benefits of applying an appreciation when conducting an initial response to homicide or serious crime?

Informs all Police of what they are expected to achieve.

Increased the chances of success with regard to aims/objectives.

Establishes a sequence of activities to be carried out.

Manages risk

Reduces uncertainty

Eliminates duplication.

Ensures nothing is overlooked.

Effective use of resources.

51

What are the 4 steps that should be followed to conduct an appreciation during an initial response to homicide or serious crime?

Aim, demonstrating a single objective.

Factors, any circumstance that could have an effect on manner in which you will achieve the aim.

Courses open, list of all the possible ways the aim could be achieved.

Plan, a proposed course of action designed to achieve the desired aim.

52

When initially going to the scene of a homicide or serious crime, what action should be taken with regard to the complainant/informant?

Any and all information the informant knows about the suspect, circumstances, victim, witnesses, location, contact details, relationships, demeanor, action taken, hazards and safety issues. They should also be instructed to ensure that the scene is not interfered with and to ID themselves to arriving Police.

53

What action should be taken with regard to initial response to homicide or serious crime, when the victim is alive but injured?

Call an ambulance, consider resuscitation. Note original body position if they have to be moved. If they are transported to hospital, ambo's details must be taken. Upon arrival, obtain medical opinion RE condition, seize clothing, establish ID, obtain pre-transfusion blood sample, seize any dressings, arrange firearms residue samples, note and photograph injuries, arrange DNA swabs where relevant, conduct scoping interview and consider recording immediate statement if likely to go 1S. Conduct prelim interview with ambo's/staff who treated victim.

54

What action should be taken with regard to initial response to homicide or serious crime, when the victim shows no signs of life?

Never presume dead unless obvious (i.e. decapitated). Note body position and record if moved for attempted resuscitation. Remain with body until relieved by CIB/Supervisor. Arrange with doctor to pronounce life extinct. Treat the victim as a "scene". Instruct medical staff to leave clothes on and any equipment in situ. If possible conduct scoping interviews with medical staff and establish actions, apparent cause of death and injury types. Ascertain if the victim spoke to anyone before their death. Record body position, lividity, obvious injuries and clothing, as well as anything else observed. Record all exhibits and sketch a plan. Provide full information to OC investigation at an early stage.

55

What are the 5 steps that should be taken with regard to preserving the scene when conducting an initial response to homicide or serious crime?

Identify (assessment, powers, establish, CAP, related scenes, what's happening, observation, HQ, SITREP)

Secure (Powers, removal, cordons, guards, logs, prevent entry, prevent evidence loss)

Preserve (Best path, movements, leave in situ, stepping plates, prepare for immediate action to preserve evidence)

Consider (Necessity of photographs of scene/persons)

Record (Integrity via log, details of scene, sketch, photograph or video, anything moved, report to OC investigation)

56

What is a Crime Scene Log and what is it's purpose?

Records the details, time and purpose of all persons who enter, attempt to enter, or leave the scene, as well as other relevant activity. The purpose is to ensure that there is no unauthorised entry to the scene, integrity of evidence or potential evidence is secured, intelligence opportunities are maximised and contamination issues are managed. It is vital that the Log is initiated at an early stage.

57

What points should be covered off in an initial witness interview during the initial response to a homicide or serious crime?

What happened
Where exactly the incident happened
Who was involved
What the witness did
Where the witness went
What the witness touched
Who touched the witness
Who else was present
Descriptions of those present
What those other people present said or did

The potential to obtain forensic evidence from these witnesses if they had been in close proximity should also be considered, as well as any evidence that may be contained in electronic devices.

58

What steps should be taken during the initial response to a homicide or serious crime to assist in obtaining key material from witnesses?

Full details.

Assemble in clear area, supervised.

Isolate from one another and explain why.

Identify and conduct brief scoping interview.

Establish if anyone's left.

Establish if any phone calls have been made from scene.

Record registration numbers of nearby vehicles.

Seize any CCTV relevant to vicinity/routes.

59

What procedure should be followed for suspects at the scene when conducting an initial response to homicide or serious crime?

Separate from other persons.

Consider their condition.

Ask them to remain and co-operate, then remove ASAP by consent or with lawful justification.

Consider grounds to arrest if uncooperative.

Prevent cross contamination by using officers who have not entered the scene to manage the suspect.

Caution the suspect.

Consider searching the suspect and their vehicle/belongings to prevent disposal of evidence and for searcher's safety.

Consider searching the vicinity of the suspect and the area or route they are thought to have taken.

Note appearance and behaviour.

Record everything they say, consider prelim interview if appropriate.

Whenever possible interview should be done on video.

Brief OC investigation on their arrival.

60

What action should be taken during the initial response to homicide or serious crime with regard to the media?

Keep them away from the immediate cordon and make no comment. Consult with OC investigation, identify media members and where they are located.

61

What action should be taken when responding to initial response to homicide or serious crime before leaving the scene?

Coordination with Snr CIB member or GDB supervisor who is likely to assume control, which will help consider what evidence has been gathered or identified and help focus on prioritising any investigative issues. The OC investigation will expect a briefing from the initial officer in charge of the incident, covering what has happened, what action has been taken, what has not been done and what needs to be done. All police who initially attend must record all information relating to their attendance.

62

What are the main points on the checklist for initial action at a serious crime?

Before attending: Make decisions driven by circumstances, obtain all available info. Consider requesting complainant to assist, make appreciation, develop plan. Freeze/control/preserve, assess safety and preserve life. ID and apprehend suspect, contain and control witnesses and preserve scene.

En route: Look out for suspect. Note and consider stopping vehicles. Prioritise tasks and assign duties - VOWES.

On arrival: 10-7. Gather information and make appreciation. Ensure safety, SITREP. Establish CAP. Record relevant info. Take control of scene. Clear scene (use S&S if necessary). ID complainant & prelim interview, arrange full interview. Commence victim procedures dependent on status. ID and preserve scene. Contain and isolate witnesses. ID routes suspects used to enter/leave. Ask suspect to remain and cooperate. Manage media.

Before leaving: Brief OC investigation. Record all action taken at scene and provide to OC investigation.

63

What is the role of an incident controller of an on-road incident scene?

Responsibility for employee safety and other responders creating a safe working environment for everyone at the scene. Involves controlling and protecting the scene, particularly the traffic (closing the road if necessary and deploying traffic control devices until traffic control management is taken over by the RCA), dealing with hazards and ensuring that employees and other responders adhere to safe work practices.
Ensuring that personnel are wearing appropriate clothing and protective equipment. Ensure that OSH regulations are complied with. Carry out risk assessments, and make sure that provision is made for support and welfare. The role of incident controller is assumed by the senior first responder to arrive at the scene regardless of the agency, and is assumed by more senior staff as they arrive.

64

What are the guidelines regarding closures of roads in terms of investigating roadside incidents?

If a road is closed as a result of an incident, it must be reopened promptly after any forensic evidence has been collected, but Police protocol does not cover planned road closures and for these an incident controller is not required.

65

What are the general guidelines around agency responsibility for specific priority functions at a roadside incident?

Safety - Usually fire will take the lead, with Police providing wider scene protection and traffic management. If the crash does not involve fire or hazardous chemicals, Police are the general lead agency.

Life preservation - Usually ambulance will take the lead for medical assistance, Police will take the lead for protection against criminal acts.

Evidence preservation - Police will take the lead for securing the scene, exhibits, witnesses and the like.

66

What are the incident controllers that may be appointed by other services at a roadside incident?

Ambulance service may appoint a commander to coordinate ambulance and medical resources if a person is in distress or danger. A member of the fire service may assume the role of incident controller where any vehicle or object is on fire or there is a threat of hazardous chemicals until that threat is neutralized or removed, and Police assume responsibility for managing the incident and conducting all further enquiries. Good communication with all other agencies is essential.

67

What are the duties and responsibilities of an incident operations manager, when appointed by an incident controller to manage the operational aspects of any road incident?

Ensure the scene has been identified correctly.
Consider whether additional Police resources are required for investigation.
Ensure first officers on the scene have been given an adequate briefing.
Consider the continuity of enquiries and evidence trails.
Allocate and prioritise scene management tasks.
Identify any specialist support required.
Liaise with media and where appropriate use media for immediate witness appeals and traffic management.
Ensure event log maintained.
Ensure all staff logged in and out of the scene.

68

What are some other incident-related roles that may be appointed at a roadside incident?

OC Exhibits, OC Body, OC Alcohol, OC Victim Support, and other OC's to take over allocated parts of a crash investigation as required.

69

What initial action procedures should be followed upon arrival at a roadside incident?

Ensure scene is safe, appreciation, SITREP, attend to victims, reassess scene safety, consider additional resources. If a crash involves a death it should be treated as a crime scene involving an unlawful death until proved otherwise.

70

What should be evaluated when considering traffic control at a roadside incident?

Balancing the demands of the investigation with keeping the road open - close it only if necessary and try to minimise the closure and notify comms.
Road Controlling Authority must be contacted to provide traffic control in non-emergency situation.
Always better to initiate a broader roadside incident control then deescalating as the circumstances allow.
Synchronise tasks for investigators so they are conducted as quickly as possible.
Consider utilizing bystanders, but replace any volunteers as soon as practicable.

71

What should an incident controller consider the benefits of if a road or lane is closed?

A reduction in response times and rapid removal of crash victims to improve survival opportunities and reduce trauma and mortality.
A reduction in the duration of incidents, incident-related delays and congestion costs, as well as improving the reliability of the network (but not at the expense of forensic evidence collection).
Rapid recover to reduce exposure of all motorists, crash victims and incident responders (thus reducing the risk of secondary incident)
Additional investigation resources to reduce the duration of the closures.

72

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to tracks and impressions?

Shoeprints in the dew/lawn/paths/gardens/mud.

73

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to entrances to the scene?

Anything in these areas that may have been dropped or thrown away by the offender?

Any bloodstains or fingerprints on paths or in yards?

74

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to motor vehicles?

Are the motor vehicles serviceable, locked, warm or cold?

Have they been used recently? Record their mileage.

Have any parked vehicles been driven away?

75

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the letterbox?

Who are the letters addressed to?

What are the dates on the envelopes and newspapers?

Were all the newspapers and mail delivered, or are deliveries for one day missing?

Have letters been interfered with?

Have papers been unfolded?

76

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to deliveries?

Have there been any deliveries of items?

What are the dates on them?

Have empty bottles been put out?

77

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to rubbish and compost?

What has been thrown out?

Have there been any collections of rubbish, rags or newspaper?

78

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to animals?

Are there any animals?

Have they been fed and watered?

Are there any signs that they have been routinely cared for?

79

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the roof?

Has anything, such as a weapon, been thrown onto the roof, including gutters?

80

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to outbuildings?

Are there any outbuildings, such as a garage or garden shed?

Has any property been stored in them? Is any property missing?

81

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to neighbouring properties?

Have any weapons or property been disposed of or dropped onto the neighbouring properties?

Are there any bloodstains?

82

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to outer doors?

Are the doors locked or bolted?

What is the type of lock?

Are there any marks suggesting someone has broken in?

Does the doorbell work?

What is the position of each door?

83

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to windows?

Are the windows bolted?

What is the position of the catch?

Are there any marks suggesting someone has broken in?

Is it possible to see into the premises through the window?

What is the position of the curtains and blinds?

Are there any marks on the outside of the windows?

84

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the hall entrance?

Are there any objects or items of clothing that do not belong in the house or to the occupants? Look especially for outer clothing such as coats, hats and scarves.

Are there any bloodstains or fingerprints on passages or stairs?

Has the offender dropped or thrown anything away in any of these areas?

85

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to lighting?

What lights were on when the first witness arrived? (This could indicate the time of day the crime occurred)

What are the gas and electricity meter readings?

86

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the inside doors?

Are the inside doors locked or bolted? What side is the key on?

What is the position of each door?

87

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to appliances?

Are there any radios, heaters or televisions going?

What are the positions of the plugs?

Appliances may need to be turned off for safety reasons - take care not to disturb fingerprints or DNA evidence.

88

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to electronic devices?

Consider computers, cellphones, tablets etc and other storage media as potential sources of evidence.

89

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to disorder?

Do the premises show signs of disorder?

If so, are they typical of the occupant or are they signs of a struggle?

90

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to weapons?

Are there any weapons?

Where were they found and in what position?

What types of weapons are they?

What state are they in?

Do they carry bloodstains or fingerprints?

91

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to signs of a party?

How many bottles and glasses are there?

What are the labels on the bottles?

Are the labels on the correct bottles?

What are the contents of the glasses?

Is there any spilt liquor?

Are there any cigarette butts and matches?

What are the character and number of the guests?

92

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to ashtrays?

How many brands of cigarette butts are there?

How were they extinguished?

Is there any lipstick on the butts?

Are there matches in the ashtrays? What types?

93

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to smells?

Is there a smell of cannabis/gunpowder/tobacco/alcohol/perfume/burning/food or vomit?

Is there an unknown smell?

94

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to heating?

Is there a fire, or embers in the fireplace or stove?

Are there any electric, gas or other heaters? Are they going? If not, how much heat is left in them?

What is the temperature in each room?

These factors may indicate the time of day and the temperature outside at the time of the crime.

95

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the fireplace?

Examine the ash in the fireplace. Are there any other burned residues?

96

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the kitchen and dining room?

Are there signs of meal preparation and consumption? Is the oven on, or still warm? Are any elements going? Have the cutlery, cooking utensils and dishes been used? How many place settings are there at the dining table?

What is in the ashtrays? Has anything been thrown into the rubbish containers? Is there anything suspicious in the sink, water traps or waste disposal unit?

How much, and what kind of food is stored? What is in the refrigerator?

What is the temperature of the water in the sink, electric jug, teapot or any other receptacle?

Are there any knives? Are there any bloodstains? Check the teatowels and dishcloths for any moisture, stains or blood? (take samples).

97

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the laundry, bathroom and toilet?

Are there any towels or rags that are damp or stained?

Are there any stains, or is there blood, on the draining board, bath, hand-basin or toilet?

Is there anything suspicious in the toilet bowl, bath, basin, tub or water traps?

Are there any clothes soaking in the tubs or washing machine?

What is the temperature of the water? Take samples.

98

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to beds?

Have the beds been slept in?

Has the bedding been disturbed as a pretence?

Is there any remaining body heat in the bed?

99

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to clothing taken off?

What clothes have been taken off? Are they folded neatly or not?

If they are in a heap, what order are they in?

100

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to writing desks and drawers?

Are they locked or closed? Where is the key?

Are the contents disorderly? Are there signs of a hurried search?

Is there any cash, or a cheque book? Are there any credit cards or valuables?

Is anything obviously missing?

101

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to calendars, correspondence, notepads or papers?

Are any dates marked or notes made?

Have any pages been torn or cut out?

Are there any diaries or notes? What do they say?

Consider possible evidential value of indentations on the surface of paper from previous written correspondence that is not present. If appropriate, take the document as an exhibit and submit for examination by the document examination section.

102

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to waste paper baskets?

Do they contain any letters or papers? What has been thrown away?

103

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to telephone and address books?

Are there any personal lists of names, phone numbers and addresses?

104

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to hiding places?

Has anything been hidden by the victim or the offender?

Objects are often hidden in or behind appliances, furniture or bookshelves, or behind pictures or curtains. They can be taped under chairs, drawers or tables, or hidden in ceilings or water cisterns.

105

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to clocks and watches?

Are clocks and watches running and showing the correct time? When did they stop? What time is set on the alarm clock?

106

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to routine tasks?

Have routine tasks been done, not done or interrupted?

107

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to miscellaneous things?

Has anything been removed?

Are there any bloodstains or any fingerprints? If so, take samples and preserve them before they are contaminated or destroyed.

108

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to approaches to a crime scene?

Tyre tracks, shoes, footprints and other impressions.

Bloodstains or body fluids.

Items belonging to the offender which will identify them or connect them with the scene, for example: personal documents, fibres, hair, footwear, clothing, implements, buttons, weapons, cigarette butts, matches, hidden or discarded property.

109

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to taking control samples of items likely to have touched the offender's clothing, footwear or implements?

Hair (animal or human), fibres, paint flakes, dust, soil, vegetation, glass, drill filings.

110

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to points of entry and exit in a building?

Damage to a door or window.

Dust disturbed on a window sill.

Scuff marks below a window.

Fibres caught on a window frame or catch.

Blood stains.

The state of security, open or unlocked doors or windows.

Also look for control samples such as glass or paint chips.

111

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to points of entry and exit in an open area?

Shoeprints or other impressions.

Scuff marks.

Disturbed vegetation.

Cigarette butts.

Matches.

Items belonging to the offender.

Also look for control samples such as glass or paint chips.

112

What should be looked for at scenes when conducting a crime scene examination, with regard to the interior or seat of activity of a crime scene?

Shoeprints

Items dropped or moved by the offender.

Cigarette butts or matches.

Fibres.

Stooling.

Blood stains and body fluids.

Animal or human hair.

Disturbed dust.

Tool or instrument impressions or marks.

Glass splinters.

Paint flakes.

Police or emergency staff shoeprints.

The offender's escape route.

Interference with the alarm system, telephone or lighting.

Food or liquor consumption.

Control samples.

113

How does the DNA profiling system "Identifiler" used by ESR compare DNA samples?

Identifiler compared 15 loci (and a gender test) selected for their variation between individuals, resulting in a very discriminating technique and a very small likelihood that unrelated individuals will have the same profile.

114

How is LCN (low copy number) DNA tested and what are the risks?

LCN DNA profiling uses the same ten sites as regular DNA sampling, allowing the LCN samples to be compared to the standard DNA database. LCN can work with trace DNA from a very small original sample and is currently the most sensitive method of DNA testing but because it is amplified many more times than a standard DNA sample, the risk of contamination is higher. Should be used for serious cases only when other forensic evidence sources are exhausted, and after consultation with a scientist.

115

When should mitochondrial DNA testing be considered?

If conventional DNA analysis is not possible, for serious offences and in consultation with ESR. Also perhaps for body identification if maternal relatives are available.

116

What are the potential advantages of analysing Y Chromosome DNA using the Y STR test?

Only male DNA will be targeted, even in the presence of large amounts of female DNA. As it is paternally inherited, fathers and brothers will have the same Y STR profile, and these cannot be compared to the DNA profile databank.

117

When should Minifiler DNA analysis be considered?

When the DNA sample has been degraded due to age/environmental conditions. The test targets smaller lengths of DNA so there is a higher chance there will be no breaks in the DNA sequence. The results are not as discriminating as standard testing, however can be combined with profiling results obtained from other techniques and can be compared to the DNA profile databank and crime sample database.

118

What is mRNA (messenger RNA) analysis useful for?

Determining the body fluid source of a DNA profile.

119

What is Laser Microdissection (LMD) useful for?

The isolation of a particular cell type from a mixture of cells types.

120

What does the STRmix DNA interpretation software do?

Evaluates complex mixtures of DNA from up to 4 people.

121

What is familial DNA searching?

The practice of creating new leads in cases where DNA evidence strongly resembles an existing DNA database profile but the match is not exact. It must be necessary and proportionate to the case.

122

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding blood?

A good DNA source.

Minute stains (1mm) can be analysed.

The age of the stain will correlate with it's success as a DNA sample.

123

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding faeces?

Unlikely to yield DNA profile unless it contains blood.

Provides a good source of mitochondrial DNA, which may also be obtained from package wrappings that have passed through the digestive system (eg. drug mules).

124

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding hair samples?

Pulled hair containing root material provides a good DNA source, however this will not work if the hairs are shed or fallen.

Mitochondrial DNA analyses are possible but must be discussed with ESR prior to submission.

May be found in hairs pulled out by the victim, but also consider the shoes of someone who has delivered a kick to the head, in between surfaces/on a rough surface at a point of entry/exit, on a vehicle that has hit a victim or in a weapon.

125

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding nasal secretions?

Used handkerchiefs with obvious nasal secretions can be a good source of DNA.

126

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding saliva?

Can be analysed from a variety of substrates.

The actual DNA is found in the buccal cells present in the saliva.

Some items in which profiles may be obtained are listed below, in decreasing order of likelihood:
- reference mouth swab
- cigarette end
- saliva stain on a gag
- envelope flaps
- balaclavas
- drink vessels (uncarbonated)
- drink vessels (carbonated)
- food items

127

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding semen?

Semen containing sperm is rich in DNA.

Semen without sperm is a little more tricky but other analytic methods such as y-chromosome analysis can target male-only DNA.

The preferred extraction method during analysis separates sperm from other cellular material.

In all sexual offence cases, control samples should be taken from the victim, the accused, and any other male who has had intercourse with the victim during the 10-day period prior to the alleged offence.

128

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding skin?

If a victim has scratched an assailant deep enough to draw blood, their fingernails may be of value if taken soon after the incident.

129

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding sweat?

Sweat contains no cellular material, however certain areas of clothing may contain a mixture of sweat and skin cells rubbed off the body that is enough for DNA analysis - but this is rare.

130

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding urine?

There is unlikely to be enough cellular material in urine to yield a DNA sample, however for serious offences consult with ESR.

131

What is the DNA source, and what are some points to note regarding vaginal fluid?

Vaginal fluid contains cellular material and is therefore suitable for DNA analysis.

132

What must be kept in mind when analysing DNA at crime scenes with regard to prioritising and sequencing sample analysis?

Investigators must consider the preservation of evidence when one examination may destroy forensic evidence required for another - for example, DNA swabbing will destroy latent fingerprints however most fingerprint analysis techniques will leave DNA evidence retrievable.

133

When analysing DNA at crime scenes, what precautions must be taken to avoid contamination?

Minimum protective clothing must include gloves and facemasks. Additional actions to preserve the scene include:
- controlling access to the scene.
- ensuring protective clothing is worn by everyone entering the scene.
- using dedicated, sterile and disposable equipment.
- recording full details of people entering thet scene.
- avoiding sneezing, coughing or talking over exhibits/stained material.
- photographing all evidential material in situ.
- keeping handling to a minimum and one item at a time (changing gloves between exhibits).
- erecting a cordon and establishing a CAP.

134

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for adhesive tape exhibits?

Record condition and general description. Cut free from the victim and use clean tweezers to uplift. Secure the tape sticky side up by suspending it and pinning it in a shallow box. Use the extreme edges of the tape, lying flat if possible but do not attempt to undo tape stuck together. Tape can offer DNA, fingerprint and physical fit evidence.

135

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for bottles or can exhibits?

If taking the item, package by securing with ties in a box. If not taking the item, use the wet and dry swabbing method.

136

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for clothing exhibits?

Package clothing in brown paper bags. Complete the label. Double fold the open end of the bag and seal fully with strong adhesive tape, ensuring all potential opening sites are sealed - never use staples. Initial over the seal. Evidence security seals and biohazard labels can also be used.

137

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for wet clothing exhibits?

Dry at room temperature. Do not accelerate drying. Where items are very wet they may need to be removed from their packaging and placed on a sheet of paper to dry them off, but this may present security and contamination issues. If the item is for ESR take it straight to them and clearly indicate that it is wet.

138

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for liquid blood exhibits?

Use a sterile pipette and place in a dry sterile plastic container with a screw top, or collect on a dry swab. Store at room temperature.

139

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for dry blood exhibits?

Can be uplifted by one of four methods:
- Take item with blood stain on it.
- Cut around blood stain and package in a secure paper envelope.
- Tape lift by discarding the first metre of tape from the roll, pressing short lengths of tape over the stain, lifting and then sandwiching blood between tape and acetate sheet, labelling the acetate sheet on the same side as the tape.
- Wet and dry swabbing method.

Seal in a labelled envelope with the seal and label on the same side of the envelope and store at room temperature.

140

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for chewing gum or cigarette end exhibits?

Use sterile tweezers, place in a dry sterile plastic container with a screw top.

141

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for hair exhibits?

Using sterile tweezers, collect loose hairs individually and keep obvious tufts together. Place on the edge of a cellotape strip on an acetate sheet, taking care not to touch or cellotape over the roots.

142

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for knife/tool exhibits?

If taking the item, place in plastic tube and secure, however these should not be used for extended periods of time as condensation may form. If not taking the item, use wet and dry swabbing method, rubbing the dampened swab on areas it is reasonable to expect the suspect has handled for a considerable period of time.

143

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for plant material exhibits?

Any plant material that could be considered for DNA profiling should be handled as follows:
Use gloves and tweezers.
Keep sample clean and soil/bug free.
Where possible take seeds or young leaves, storing seeds in a cool dry place and cuttings in plastic bags, with tissue dampened with sterilised water around the cut stems.
Wet tissues such as leaves should have their moisture removed or be dried.
Take control samples of a similar age, size, tissue and condition.
Transport to ESR ASAP to prevent further deterioration.

144

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for saliva or possible semen and vaginal fluid exhibits?

Use the wet and dry swabbing method.

145

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are the recovery methods that should be undertaken for the wet and dry swabbing method?

1 - ensure swab seals are intact before use.
2 - moisten sterile swab with water (2-3 drops), swab area that may have saliva or blood stains by gently rubbing the dampened swab onto the selected area.
3 - replace the swab in the plastic holder. label the swab base and holder with the exhibit number.
4 - cut about 5mm off the end of the swab holder tube with clean scissors, which allows the swab to dry.
5 - repeat the process with a dry swab to mop up any further liquid.
6 - place the swabs in a clean paper envelope, seal, sign and label on the same side as the seal (both swabs can be packaged together), and store at room temperature.
7 - for dry blood and saliva, semen or vaginal fluid samples, take a control swab or the unstained background surface as near as possible to where the evidential swab was taken. Place the control swab in a clean paper envelope, seal, sign and label on the same side as the seal, but pack this swab separately.

146

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are some examples of good items for LCN DNA profiling?

Visible body fluid stains too small for standard technique, on a difficult substrate, chemically treated, or have previously been unsuccessfully or poorly analysed using standard technique.
Items or surfaces that appear clean and have not been touched by many people.
Visible marks on a clean surface, eg smudge print on a window.
Grabbed clothing that is new or relatively clean on, where the wearer knows where they were grabbed.

147

With regard to DNA at crime scenes, what are some examples of poor items for LCN DNA profiling?

Badly burnt items.
Items heavily stained with the victim's DNA.
Items that have been frequently handled or touched by different people.
Bullets and cartridges that have been fired.
Grabbed clothing that is old, well worn, worn by different people, worn amongst a number of other people or when the wearer doesn't know where they were grabbed.

148

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of allele?

Any of several alternative forms of a gene or STR locus found at the same point on a particular pair of chromosomes.

149

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of ASCLD/LAB?

American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board.

Organisation that provides accreditation for labs around the world. ESR is accredited by them.

150

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of aspermic/azoospermic?

Containing little or no sperm.

151

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of bayesian?

A statistical method combining the likelihood ratio with additional information to produce an overall estimate of the statistical strength.

152

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of buccal sample/swab?

A sample or swab taken from the mouth, obtained by rubbing the swab on the inside of the cheek to transfer skin cells that can then be used to generate a DNA profile.

153

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of chromosome?

Rod shaped structure found in the nucleus of the cell, containing genetic material. Humans have 23 pairs, one half of the pair from each parent.

154

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of CI (BS) Act?

Criminal Investigations (Bodily Samples) Act 1995. Act deals with regulations regarding samples for use on the national DNA database.

155

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of CSDU/CSD?

Crime Sample Database Unit. This is the team at ESR that works on volume crime samples. These samples are loaded into the CSD and compared against the National DNA Database (NDD).

156

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of defence hypothesis?

Assumed to be that the biological evidence seen in a case is not from the suspect, but from another unrelated person in the wider population - used in the calculations that evaluate a piece of evidence.

157

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid. Contains the coded sequence that determines or physical characteristics and directs the chemical processes in the body.

158

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of electrophoresis?

A technique that separates DNA fragments by running them through a gel block containing gaps of various sizes. The movement is directed by electric current which attracts the negatively charged DNA to the positive terminal.

159

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of familial searching?

When a search of DNA profiles of individuals that are related to each other is conducted, usually used when a full DNA profile has been obtained from a crime scene but there is no match for it on the database.

160

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of FST?

Statistical term used to measure the level of inbreeding in a population. Helps calculate how rare a certain DNA profile is.

161

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of gene?

A section of DNA that contains the genetic information coding for one particular trait in an individual.

162

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of genome?

The complete set of information contained in the DNA of an organism.

163

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of heterozygote?

A person who has two differing alleles at a single locus, eg one for blue eyes and one for brown eyes.

164

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of Identifiler?

The name for the DNA analysis used by ESR.

165

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of LCN DNA?

Low Copy Number DNA analysis.

166

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of likelihood ratio?

Statistical term that measures the value of a piece of evidence.

167

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of LMD?

Laser Microdissection - isolates a particular cell type from a mixture of cells.

168

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of locus?

A specific area, or site, on a chromosome.

169

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of mtDNA?

Mitochondrial DNA. Inherited maternally and analyses the DNA present in mitochondria inside the cells rather than the DNA in the nucleus. Resistant to degradation and suitable for faeces, aged teeth or bones and hair shaft, but not as discriminating as regular DNA.

170

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of mRNA?

Identifies the particular body fluid source of a DNA profile.

171

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of multiplex?

A form of DNA analysis that allows multiple loci to be analysed at the same time.

172

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of NDD?

National DNA Database, maintained by ESR. Profiles on the NDD are compared with the CSD to identify offenders.

173

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of nucleotide?

The base unit of DNA (A, T, G, C), different combinations of which encode the information that DNA obtains.

174

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of P30 / Prostate specific antigen (PSA)?

A protein produced by the prostate gland that is used as a marker for the presence of seminal fluid.

175

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of PCT?

Priority Casework Team at ESR that deal with cases where a suspect has been identified. Often deal with high-profile cases.

176

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of polymorphism?

Multiple forms of an allele at a locus within a population. Allow for differences in DNA profiles between individuals to be identified.

177

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of prosecutor's hypothesis?

Assumed to be that the biological evidence in a case is from the suspect identified.

178

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of RFLP?

Restriction fragment length polymorphism. Old method of DNA analysis relying on different sized fragments. Requires a large amount of DNA to work as well as a long analysis time.

179

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of SGM plus?

The old STR multiplex used by ESR to generate DNA profiles from biological samples.

180

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of STR?

Short tandem repeats. Short sequences of nucleotides that repeat themselves at different points around the genome, the number of repeats differing between individuals.

181

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of STRmix?

DNA interpretation software that allows the ability to evaluate complex mixtures of up to 4 people.

182

In terms of specific DNA terminology, what is the meaning of trace DNA?

Very small amounts of DNA, eg the few cells left behind when someone touches something with their hands.

183

When handling and packaging documentary exhibits, what steps should be followed?

1 - Note physical condition & do not impair it. Do not tag/cellotape/label/staple/holepunch/mark, interfere with tears/creases/pen/pencil/markings or laminate.

2 - If you need to unfold, do so carefully and make no additional indents.

3 - If it is wet, seal and deliver. Do not let it dry out as the pages will stick together.

4 - Otherwise package in unused manila envelopes or in plastic bags/sleeves large enough to encompass document unfolded, or otherwise roll and wrap it. There is no requirement to individually package a series of documents.

5 - Place packaged document between two sheets of heavy card to prevent further indentations/damage.

6 - Complete labels before attaching to package to avoid further indentations. Include warnings if the documents are intended for later fingerprints/DNA or are contaminated.

184

When encountering drugs at crime scenes, what procedures should be followed when packaging powders or tablets?

Pack in self-sealing bags inside a drugs envelope.

Pack powders which may cause cross contamination in nylon bags with swan-necked seals.

185

When encountering drugs at crime scenes, what procedures should be followed when packaging syringes or glass pipes?

Pack in rigid plastic/sharps containers.

If needles are seized, ensure they are safe for handling by covering with needle guards, but beware ESR will not analyse these.

186

When encountering drugs at crime scenes, what procedures should be followed when packaging plant material or mushrooms?

Dry material before packaging in drugs envelopes or paper sacks (not plastic).

Remove from foil packaging to facilitate later fingerprinting.

Count whole plants and remove soil.

187

When encountering drugs at crime scenes, what procedures should be followed when packaging cannabis plantations and other bulk seizures?

Take photographs.

Count the plants.

Measure the shortest, tallest and average plant.

Take samples from each plant if up to 10, ten random samples if up to 20, a random leaf sample from half the plants if up to 100, and a random leaf sample from 50 if over 100 plants. These samples must be representatigve of the bulk and should be at least 28 grams to cover possession for supply.

188

When encountering drugs at crime scenes, what procedures should be followed when packaging solvents or solvent soaked plant material?

Leave plant material in the liquid. Place liquids in sealed tins or glass containers (not plastic) to avoid evaporation or loss. If large volumes are seized only 50-100ml of clean solvent or up to 50ml of dark green solvent is needed for analysis. Put plant material damp from solvents in sealed glass containers or nylon bags with swan necked seal.

189

When encountering drugs at crime scenes, what procedures should be followed when packaging items for drug residues?

Submit item if possible. If swabbed in situ use cotton swabs as for DNA but do not cut the holding tube. Also submit control unused swab.

190

What are the services offered by the Electronic Crime Laboratory (ECL)?

Evidential preservation of data from electronic devices.
Forensic examination of preserved data.
Capturing and downloading electronic data.
Providing specialist advice.

191

What are the services offered by the National Cybercrime Centre (NC3)?

Assisting with internet related investigations.
Examining and determining the source of emails.
Assist investigators to locate possible evidence from online databases.
Providing specialist advice.
Investigating computer crime offences.

192

What procedures should be followed during the preservation, recovery and packaging process by first responders with regard to cybercrime?

Freeze the scene, locate and secure the evidence, document any action taken to ensure the integrity of the evidential trail, protect perishable data. Do not attempt to access information on the computer or allow the suspect near the computer, to ensure electronic data is not altered or destroyed.

193

What procedures should be followed in terms of locating and securing evidence with regard to cybercrime, for a standalone computer?

Isolate from phone lines, move mouse to see if computer is on or hibernating but do not touch keyboard or click mouse. Do not turn on or off. Consider photographing the screen. Pull power plug from the back of the computer first, then from the wall, removing the battery if it's a laptop (don't replace it). Photograph the rear of the computer. Collect all removable storage media and documentation. Obtain all logons, usernames, passwords and pins. If the computer is networked, contact ECL.

194

What procedures should be followed in terms of locating and securing evidence with regard to cybercrime, for a cellphone?

If it's off, leave it off. If it's on, activate flight mode and leave on if it's going to be examined immediately. If not, turn it off. Consider photographing the screen while it's on if necessary. If it rings, do not answer it and do not scroll through and read text messages. Collect all contract documentation if in the process of executing a warrant.

195

What procedures should be followed in terms of locating and securing evidence with regard to cybercrime, for non-electronic evidence?

Give consideration to written passwords/other handwritten notes, blank pads with indented writing, hardware and software manuals, calendars, literature, text or graphical printouts and photographs - these should be secured and labelled for future analysis. Also obtain from the suspect information about owners/users of electronic devices, passwords, usernames, encryption codes and ISP. S&S enables this questioning to facilitate a search of an electronic device and failure on the part of the suspect to provide it is an offence.

196

What procedures should be followed in terms of locating and securing evidence with regard to cybercrime, when packaging and submitting exhibits?

1 - Contact ECL before submitting for other forensic testing.
2 - Appropriately package and cushion.
3 - Clearly mark external packaging as fragile.
4 - Include with the submission information on: Circumstances/history, details of examination required, details of items being submitted, copy of the warrant and 268, details of any other proposed testing, your contact details.

197

What are the two biological principles of fingerprint identification, and the difference between them?

Permanence - ridged skin formed during foetal development, remaining unchanged throughout a persons life unless scarred.

Uniqueness - "information" contained within a print that is unique that finger or part of that finger. Randomly formed due to the effects of genetic and physical pressures while the foetus is in utero.

198

What is the identification methodology used when comparing fingerprints?

Three levels of detail - basic pattern, type/position/sequence of ridge characteristics, scars/creases/ridge flow. Then evaluated for a conclusion of individualisation (match), exclusion (non-match) or inconclusive. Verification (peer reviewing) is then conducted by two other fingerprint officers.

199

When can Police legally take fingerprints?

When a person is in Police custody or whom Police intend to summons. Also powers under corrections, Gambling Act and Immigration Act. Sometimes for visas or residency permits. Police employees may also offer prints as elimination prints. Voluntary prints may also be taken from any informed, consenting adult, or from children under statute or voluntarily.

200

When should fingerprint officers be called to the scene of a serious crime, eg a homicide?

At the same time ESR and photographers are called, in order for discussion to be had around the order of examination so that all evidence can be gathered.

201

What are the possible examination results for developed fingerprints?

Retained for search (suitable to be run through database), Retained for suspect (if nominated) or Unsuitable for identification.

202

What precautions should be taken when handling and packaging exhibits?

Take care - fingerprints are 99% water and therefore easily damaged. Always wear gloves and try to handle objects the least damaging way. Pack exhibits in such a way that they won't break, and ensure the surface to be printed is not in contact with any other surface, and that the exhibit cannot move around inside it's packaging. Biohazard labels should be applied where appropriate.

203

When should crime scene photographs be taken?

If there has been a fatality.
If a major enquiry or investigation is likely.
The evidence cannot be adequately explained or recorded by way of an inventory or other means.
The exhibits themselves will be difficult to present in court.
A coroner, pathologist or other expert has requested them.
Photographs will enable prompt return of property held for evidentiary purposes.

204

What are the guidelines around obtaining crime scene photographs?

Act quickly. Consider who should be taking the photographs. Guard and protect scene until photographer arrives. Brief photographer. If scene has been altered, photograph in new state. Photographs should provide views of the area that would meet the eye of the average observer - better to take too many photographs than not enough. Any images showing scale or distance should be taken by a forensic photographer.

205

If you decide to take forensic images yourself, what are the guidelines that must be followed?

Ensure your camera is functioning and the time/date data is set correctly. Record details in notebook to create a paper trail. Download all images to a police computer. Do not delete any images. Cameras should be assigned to a particular department/employee as deleted images are easily recovered, even when reformatting is conducted.

206

What procedures should be followed when downloading images received from a third party?

Secure memory cards and flashdrives as exhibits. Forward to Police Forensic Imaging for safe downloading. Ensure any CD/DVD media is correctly labelled and packaged. For stolen cameras, USB drives and mobile phones, forward to Forensic Imaging.

207

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking scene attendance at a crime scene?

Preserving own life, saving life, apprehending offender, detaining witnesses, preserving the scene - this person has vital effect on the inquiry and the forensic evidence capture potential.

208

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking crime scene management at a crime scene?

Controlling, freezing and preserving the scene and ensuring it is safe.
Briefing staff.
Coordinating and overseeing the scene examination.
Providing communication link between scene and OC investigation.
Ensuring scene is fingerprinted/photographed/examined by specialists before it is searched.
Establishing CAP.
Conducting recon.
Planning strategy for forensic examination.
Uplifting, inspecting and ensuring delivery of exhibits to exhibit recorder.
Proving relevant exhibits in court.

209

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking photography and video recording at a crime scene?

Photographing and video recording crime scenes and evidence/exhibits in situ before removal or sampling.
Preparing logs and reports accurately reflecting their activities within the scene.

210

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking crime scene recording at a crime scene?

Recording the scene and position of associated evidence.

211

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking crime scene examination, and evidence recording and recovery at a crime scene?

Identifying, collecting and evaluating forensic evidence and intelligence.
Conducting an initial assessment and calling in ESR and other specialists when necessary.
Searching for and preserving offender fingerprints and obtaining elimination prints.
Identifying appropriate forensic recovery techniques for specialist samples and deciding the priorities for examination.
Developing and implementing a forensic strategy in consultation with the OC case.

212

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking exhibits recording at a crime scene?

Receiving exhibits and ensuring they are labelled, numbered, recorded, stored and secured.
Delivering exhibits for examination or analysis.
Preparing exhibits for presentation in court.
Ensuring that continuity chain of evidence is maintained.

213

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking managing and examining the deceased at a crime scene?

Guarding the body with dignity and respect and preserving associated samples and exhibits.
Preserving or collecting trace evidence from the body.
Proving the continuity of the body from the scene to the mortuary.
Completing sudden death procedures and arranging ID, examination, post mortem, disrobing and fingerprinting.

214

What are the responsibilities of the person undertaking external forensic specialist procedures at a crime scene?

Providing expertise or specialist techniques otherwise not available within Police.

215

What are the 5 components of successful crime scene examination?

Forensic teamwork, preservation, documentation, communication and flexibility.

216

What should be considered with regard to the forensic teamwork component during crime scene examination?

Consider all disciplines, consult early to maximize evidence recovery, and involve forensic team in the development of any forensic examination strategy.

217

What should be considered with regard to the preservation component during crime scene examination?

All forensic aspects of the case hinge on the preservation and integrity of evidence, which there is usually only one opportunity to collect.

218

What should be considered with regard to the documentation component during crime scene examination?

Documentation is the hallmark of professionalism. Carefully manage chain of evidence and associated disclosure issues, and keep complete and accurate examination reports and exhibit schedules.

219

What should be considered with regard to the communication component of crime scene examination?

Communication is the key to an evidentially successful scene examination and the subsequent presentation of information. The OC case should establish clear lines of communication. The scene examination team, investigating officer/intelligence unit and scientists all need different information when contributing to the investigation.

220

What should be considered with regard to the flexibility component of crime scene examination?

The significance of material may change over the course of the investigation - results should be regularly reviewed and discussed and forensic team members must be flexible to adapt to changing requirements and improvise as necessary.

221

What are the basic steps that must be followed during the scene examination process?

1 - Safety/Preserve life.
2 - Follow initial action procedures.
3 - Establish CAP.
4 - Enter scene (stepping plates, zoning)
5 - Consider outdoors scene.
6 - Make a recon.
7 - Preliminary reconstruction.
8 - Plan forensic examination strategy.
9 - Brief staff.
10 - Photograph/fingerprint.
11 - Make records (scene log).
12 - Search approaches/entry/exit/activity seat.
13 - Carry out reconstructions.
14 - Call for assistance/specialists.
15 - Brief staff.

222

What are the guidelines that should be followed when conducting a recon during a crime scene examination?

1 - Gather all available information before entering.
2 - Create CAP and look over scene without touching/disturbing. Use appropriate protective clothing and consider stepping plates.
3 - Sketch scene. This helps form plan of action, is a reference and records the allocation of staff to search areas.
4 - Note and prepare for anything that may damage or affect evidence.
5 - Reconsider and confirm scene boundaries.

223

What are the guidelines that should be followed when making a reconstruction during a crime scene examination?

Make a prelim reconstruction as soon as sufficient information is available. Finalize a main reconstruction after all information is gathered, and the interpretation, recording and collection of evidence is completed. Question the significance of all physical evidence found and make deductions. Assess photographs, plans and maps. Consider scene's physical aspects at the time of the crime. Consider what happened and how it occurred, and if there is an MO. Consider specialist opinions and test their theories. Experiment with theories and test their flexbility - beware of having a fixed position and being influenced by others, as you risk developing tunnel vision and may mislead the examination's direction.

224

What are the guidelines that should be followed when making an appreciation during a crime scene examination?

Consider staff availability/limitations in time and daylight hours.
Weather conditions and protecting the scene.
Seriousness of the offence.
Type and size of the area.
What communication/equipment/transport/specialists are required.
Logistics (meals/accommodation).
Priorities regarding searching/exhibits.
Powers to search.

225

What are the aims of an examination strategy for a crime scene examination, and what should it include?

Aims: Set objectives, identify resources, appoint team, develop plan, monitor actions, conduct exhibit reviews, prioritise sequential examinations. Should include starting place, logical and systematic search method, likelihood of evidence deteriorating, specialists required, individual tasks/responsibilities, the recording system to be used. Regularly brief staff on the information, aim, details and further signalling and communication arrangements.

226

What are the different types of search patterns that can be used when conducting a crime scene examination?

Grid search, Lane search, Spiral search, Zone search. Choose after considering nature of the crime, nature of the evidence and the location and known facts.

227

How should stepping plates be used when conducting a crime scene examination?

Should be used in conjunction with a CAP and protective clothing. Should be carried to and from the scene sealed in back polythene bags. Should be thoroughly cleaned and dried between scenes.

228

What is the zone model and how is it used during crime scene examination?

Divides scene into hot zone (requiring examination/evidence collection), warm zone (transition zone) and cold zone (place within outer cordons). Movements into the hot zone and cold zone should be logged.

229

What should be found in the warm zone during a crime scene examination?

Transition area, wash up station and rubbish bins, designated areas for examiners protective clothing and equipment, exhibit transit and processing area, exhibit examination and photography, secondary warm zones, notice to dress to protect evidence and manage health and safety risks. Used equipment should be treated as a biohazard.

230

How should exhibits be numbered in a serious crime scene?

The numbering used for exhibits must be consistent, use unique numbers to eliminate duplication, be simple efficient and meaningful, be easy to delegate, and cover all exhibits.

231

What are the general principles that should be kept in mind when conducting a crime scene examination involving Maori?

Police must be prepared to carry out their scene duties in a manner that demonstrates respect for Maori beliefs and values. Good communication, tolerance and understanding is essential and the District Iwi Liaison officer can assist staff with meeting these needs.

232

What should be kept in mind when conducting a crime scene examination involving Maori while at the actual crime scene?

Be mindful that family may want to stay within or be involved, and these requests should be permitted as far as practicable, and sound and reasoned explanations provided when this is not possible.

233

What should be kept in mind when conducting a crime scene examination involving Maori where there is a large amount of blood at the scene?

Remember that blood is considered sacred, and before cleaning and releasing the scene you should advise the family, allow them to have input into cleaning if they wish and provide them with equipment if necessary.

234

What sort of requests would a family liaison officer dealing with a Maori family have to consider?

Requests for access to the scene, requests to accompany the victim to the mortuary, family specific requests, the conducting of a deceased victim prayer, early release of the body, ongoing consultation with whanau, placement of rahui, retention of exhibits.