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Flashcards in io Antimicrobials Deck (92):
1

penetrates into joints

cephalosporins

2

renal impairment in 80% of patients

amphotericin B

3

drugs processed by the liver

Clindamycin,
Erythromycin

4

inhibits microbial synthesis of folic acid

sulfonamides

5

used in treatment of MRSA

Vancomycin

6

broad spectrum drugs

Tetracycline,
Fluoroquinolones,
Rifampin,
Cephalosporin,
Azithromycin

7

Can cause anemia

Amphotericin B
Rifampin

8

from beta lactam family

Penicillin
Cephalosporins

9

used against anaerobe gram (-) bacilli and aerobe gram (+)

Clindamycin

10

Bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal (depending on dose and organ)

Erythromycin (a macrolide)

11

used for treatment of pseudomembranous colitis

Metronidazole (Flagyl) with Vancomycin

12

can cause hypokalemia

Amphotericin B

13

used for acute herpes zoster (shingles)

Famciclovir

14

potentiates the effect of PO anticoagulants

Sulfonamides

15

Severe N/V with PO or IV administration

Macrolides (Azithromycin and Erythromycin)

16

Gram (-) antibiotics

Polymyxin B,
Colistimethate,
Metronidazole (Flagyl),
Aminoglycosides

17

Used in ortho surgeries with prosthetic devices

Vancomycin

18

Potent inducer of cytochrome P450

Rifampin

19

Used in systemic infections such as bone, soft tissue, respiratory tract

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

20

extensive renal excretion with 2-3 hrs elimination half time
(20-40 fold increase with renal failure)

Aminoglycosides
(Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikamicin, Neomycin)

21

used for herpes simplex encephalitis

Vidarabine

22

can cause seizures

Amphotericin B

23

as the generations go up, the effectiveness against gram negative cocci increases

cephalosporins

24

gram (+) antibiotics

Penicillin,
Vancomycin,
Erythromycin

25

Drug that is a Monoamine oxidase inhibitor used in Parkinson's

Amantadine

26

Can cause pseudomembranous colitis

Clindamycin

27

Most potent antibiotic at the neuromuscular junction
(can produce muscle weakness similar to a muscle relaxant)

Polymyxin B,
Colistimethate

28

Most nephrotoxic aminoglycoside

Neomycin

29

Treats UTIs

Sulfonamides,
Polymyxin B,
Colistimethate

30

fat soluble (enters the CNS)

Vancomycin,
Metronidazole (Flagyl),
Rifampin

31

processed by the kidneys

Fluoroquinolones,
Amphotericin B,
Aminoglycosides,
Penicillin,
Ampicillin

32

can cause phototoxicity

Tetracyclines

33

Vancomycin dosage in adults

10-15 mg/kg over 1 hr

34

can cause drug induced hepatitis

Rifampin

35

drug against cytomegalovirus disease

Ganciclovir

36

drug with renal excretion with elimination 1/2 time of 3-8 hrs

Fluoroquinolones

37

Used n cardiac, oath and CSF and Shunt procedures

Vancomycin

38

similar mechanism of action as macrolides

Clindamycin

39

drug with highest incidence of skin rash

Ampicillin

40

can cause fever, chills, hypotension with infusion

Amphotericin B

41

Derivative of Kanamycin

Amikacin

42

Can prolong QT (repolarization) and increases the risk for torsades de pointes

Erythromycin,
Azithromycin

43

Penicillin drug that covers gram negative bacilli

give examples of the gm (-) bacilli that are targeted

Ampicillin

H. flu and E. coli

44

Used for GI and GU infections

Fluoroquionolones

45

mutagenic and carcinogenic antiviral

Vidarabine

46

Highly neuro and nephrotoxic

Polymyxin B
Colistimethate

47

Antibiotic to be avoided in parturients and kids

Tetracycline

48

Treats:
pneumococcal
meningococcal
Streptococcal infections

Penicillin

49

frequent occurrence of vestibular damage

streptomycin and kanamycin

50

inhibits cytochrome P450

Fluoroquinolones

51

Could have delayed hypersensitivity up to 24 hrs

Penicillin

52

treats abdominal and pelvic sepsis

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

53

Antagonist of macrolides

Clindamycin

54

enhances NM blockade of lidocaine

Aminoglycosides
(Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikamicin, Neomycin)

55

not readily absorbed from the GI tract
=> gut sterilization

Polymyxin B and Colistimethate

56

enters phagocytic cells and kills TB mycobacterium

Rifampin

57

what are the 3 classes of cephalosporins

First generation: Cefazolin (Ancef), cephalexin (Keflex)

Second generation: Cefoxitin (Mefoxin)

Third generation: Cefotaxime (Claforan), ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

58

drugs processed by the kidneys and the liver

Tetracycline
Sulfonamides
Rifampin

59

increases peristalsis => increased gastric emptying and abdominal cramping

Erythromycin and Azithromycin

60

increases the chance of NM blockage reappearance in PACU

Aminoglycosides
(Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikamicin, Neomycin)

61

can cause profound hypotension

Vnacomycin

62

used for cytomegalic inclusion disease

Vidarabine

63

most efficient penicillin to be absorbed from the GI tract

Amoxicillin

64

careful administration with Myasthenia Gravis patients

Aminoglycosides
(Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikamicin, Neomycin)

65

causes toxicity at plasma levels > 9mcg/ml

Gentamicin

66

used in bowel surgery

Fluoroquinolones

67

can cause thrombophlebitis with prolonged IV use

Erythromycin
Azithromycin

68

can cause hematologic toxicity

Ganciclovir

69

treats infections of the skin, mucous membranes, eyes and ears

polymyxin B
Colistimethate

70

treats yeast and fungus infections

Amphotericin B

71

most allergenic antimicrobial

Penicillin

72

drug that should always be given using an IV pump (no free flow)

Vancomycin

73

has poor absorption through the GI
given as IM or IV

Aminoglycosides
(Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikamicin, Neomycin)

74

can cause acute hemolytic anemia

Penicillin
Sulfonamides

75

Can treat influenza A virus infection

Amantadine

76

can cause permanent discoloration of the teeth

Tetracyclines

77

can potentiate the neuromuscular blockade

Clindamycin
Aminoglycosides
Polymyxin B
Colistimethate

78

can cause drug fever

Sulfonamides

79

can cause thrombocytopenia

Amphotericin B
Rifampin

80

can be used in treatment of acneea (decreases fatty acids in sebum)

Tetracyclines

81

has renal excretion with 1/2 time of 6 hrs to 9 days

Vnacomycin

82

can cause irreversible, dose dependent ototoxicity

Aminoglycosides
(Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikamicin, Neomycin)

83

metabolized by cytochrome P450 and eliminated in the bile

Erythromycin

84

used in hepatic coma (decreases plasma ammonia levels)

Neomycin

85

used for:
streptococcal
enterococcal endocarditis
severe staph infections

Vancomycin

86

stop if Creatinine > 3.5

Amphotericin B

87

Antivirals with renal excretion

Acyclovir
Valacyclovir
Amantadine

88

can cause severe nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity (especially if combined with ahminoglycosides)

Vancomycin

89

can be used against AEROBIC gram negative bacteria

Aminoglycosides
(Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikamicin, Neomycin)

90

drugs that inhibit protein synthesis

Aminoglycosides,
Tetracyclines,
Macrolides,
Clindamycin,
Rifampin (inhibits RNA synthesis)

91

bacteriostatic drugs

tetracyclines,
Erythromycin,
Clindamycin,
Sulfonamides

92

drugs that interfere with bacterial cell wall

Penicillin,
Cephalosporins,
Vancomycin,
Polymyxin B,
Colistimethate