Flashcards in Isotopes And Nuclear Radiation Deck (19):
What are the 3 types of radioactive substances
What is the atomic number
The number of protons in an atom
What is an isotope
Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
What is ionising radiation
Radiation that knocks electrons off atoms, creating positive ions
What is an Alpha particle mad up of?
What can Alpha particles travel through?
-are stopped quickly
-can only travel a few cm in air
-absorbed by a sheet of paper
Are Alpha particles ionising?
Because of their shape they are strongly ionising
What is a Beta particle?
They are simply a fast moving electron released by the nucleus
What are Bets particles made up off?
Virtually have no mass and a charge of -1
Are Beta particles ionising?
They are moderate ionising.
What can Beta travel through?
-penetrate moderately far into materials before colliding
-range in air of a few metres
-absorbed by a sheet of aluminium(5mm)
What happens when a Beta particle is emitted
For every particle emitted, a neutron in the nucleus’s has turned into a proton
What is radiative decay?
Unstable isotopes decay into other elements and give out radiation as they become more stable
What are Gamma rays
Waves of electromagnetic radiation(p.76) released by the nucleus.
What do Gamma rays travel through?
-penetrate far into materials without being stopped
-will travel long distance through air
Are Gamma rays ionising
Are weakly ionising as they tent to pass through rather than collide with atoms
What can Gamma rays be absorbed by
By thick sheets of lead or metres of concrete
What is the ionising power of a source?
How easily radiation can knock electrons of atoms