Isotopes And Nuclear Radiation Flashcards Preview

Physics > Isotopes And Nuclear Radiation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Isotopes And Nuclear Radiation Deck (19):
1

What are the 3 types of radioactive substances

Alpha
Beta
Gamma

3

What is the atomic number

The number of protons in an atom

4

What is an isotope

Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

5

What is ionising radiation

Radiation that knocks electrons off atoms, creating positive ions

6

What is an Alpha particle mad up of?

Two neutrons
Two protons

7

What can Alpha particles travel through?

-are stopped quickly
-can only travel a few cm in air
-absorbed by a sheet of paper

8

Are Alpha particles ionising?

Because of their shape they are strongly ionising

9

What is a Beta particle?

They are simply a fast moving electron released by the nucleus

10

What are Bets particles made up off?

Virtually have no mass and a charge of -1

11

Are Beta particles ionising?

They are moderate ionising.

12

What can Beta travel through?

-penetrate moderately far into materials before colliding
-range in air of a few metres
-absorbed by a sheet of aluminium(5mm)

13

What happens when a Beta particle is emitted

For every particle emitted, a neutron in the nucleus’s has turned into a proton

14

What is radiative decay?

Unstable isotopes decay into other elements and give out radiation as they become more stable

15

What are Gamma rays

Waves of electromagnetic radiation(p.76) released by the nucleus.

16

What do Gamma rays travel through?

-penetrate far into materials without being stopped
-will travel long distance through air

17

Are Gamma rays ionising

Are weakly ionising as they tent to pass through rather than collide with atoms

18

What can Gamma rays be absorbed by

By thick sheets of lead or metres of concrete

26

What is the ionising power of a source?

How easily radiation can knock electrons of atoms

36

What is the mass number

Number of protons + number of neutrons (bigger number)