A 4-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department by his mother. She says he points to his stomach and says, “It hurts so bad.” Which pain assessment tool would be the best choice when assessing this child’s pain?
a. Descriptor Scale
b. Numeric rating scale
c. Brief Pain Inventory
d. Faces Pain Scale—Revised (FPS-R)
Rating scales can be introduced at age 4 or 5 years. The FPS-R is designed for use with children and asks the child to choose a face that shows “how much hurt (or pain) you have now.” Young children should not be asked to rate pain by using numbers
the nurse is assessing a 6-month-old infant. What does the nurse know to be true regarding the pain experienced by infants?
a. Pain in infants can only be assessed by physiological changes, such as an increased heart rate.
b. The FPS-R can be used to assess pain in infants.
c. A procedure that induces pain in adults will also induce pain in the infant.
d. Infants feel pain less compared with adults
If a procedure or disease process causes pain in an adult, then it will also cause pain in an infant. Physiological changes cannot be exclusively used to confirm or deny pain because other factors, such as medications, fluid status, or stress, may cause physiological changes. The FPS-R can be used starting at age 4 years
When working with Indigenous children, the nurse recognizes that they: (Select all that apply.)
a. Express pain through their facial expressions.
b. Silently suffer through their pain.
c. Cry easily when in pain.
d. Are reluctant to express their pain vocally.
e. Are at increased risk for pain.
ANS: B, D, E
Indigenous children and youth feel and experience pain just like anyone else, but many tend not to express it outwardly through words, facial expressions, or crying. They just manage it and suffer silently. This response to pain is thought to be a result of cultural traditions and the effects of the residential school system. Indigenous children have higher rates of dental pain, ear infections, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Understanding that this population is at a higher risk for pain and is also more likely to be stoic about pain expression should prompt health care providers to have open discussions with Indigenous patients about experiences that may cause them pain: both bodily and spiritually