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Flashcards in Juvenile Justice Deck (13):

What are predictive factors of recidivism in youth?

Age at release (younger), number of prior imprisonments, property offence


Who commits crime?

Crime is committed by the same people. 40-60% released, return to prison within 2 years.


What is the worst age for offending and at what age can repeat offending be predicted by?

16-17 yrs and 8-10yrs


What percentage of young people in custody are aboriginal or TSI?



What percentage of youth in custody have been abused?



What are the criminogenic factors in childhood?

Problematic parenting- coldness/rejection
Yoshikawa biopsychosocial- neuro, cog, antisocial b, parental substance abuse, disorganised neighbourhood, media violence (?)


What are the 2 relevant diagnoses for JJ and a third important disorder?

ODD, CD and sequential progression to ASPD


What is conduct disorder and how may it progress to ASPD?

Begins around 7-15. Violation of rights and norms, aggression, property destruction, violence to animals/people. Prevalence is 1-10% and more common among boys. A mild diagnosis has a good prognosis but severe can lead to ASPD. Current research by Kimonos surrounding CU traits and intervening at preschool level.


Are sex offences common among young criminals?

Yes, up to 30% rapes of adult women are committed by young and 1/2 of all sex offences against children. There is an early onset but usually decline by middle age. Offending against adults is associated with physical punishment and against children is associated with being a victim of male abuse.


Why do children offend?

According to Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development, there is a moral learning mechanism to resist temptation and crime is the deficiency or temporary breakdown of that mechanism.
Similar principles to Piaget cog development- stages of moral reasoning. Moral judgment constructed from social interaction.


What are some interventions for juvenile crime?

Treatment for CD most effective before 13 (pattern less locked). Family interventions (collar problem solving process).


What are the 4 criminogenic needs associated with reoffending?

1. Attitudes/orientation 2. Criminal friends 3. History of antisocial behaviour 4. Personality/behaviour


What are some theories associated with cycles of violence?

1. Social learning theory- abusive parent role model
2. Attachment T- abuse-> insecure attachment- react against parents
3. Deficient social info processing- abused children attribute hostile intentions
4. Post traumatic stress- abuse->PTSD->Re-enact
5. Emotion regulation- learn to dissociate from pain- can't identify emotions