Kaplan Ch. 3 - Embryogenesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kaplan Ch. 3 - Embryogenesis Deck (12):
1

Stem cell

Cells that have not yet differentiated or that give rise to other cells that will differentiate

2

Totipotent

Includes only embryonic stem cells, can differentiate into any kind of cell type

3

Pluripotent

Cells can differentiate into any cell type EXCEPT those that are found in placental structures (blastulation, gastrulation)

4

Multipotent

Can differentiate into multiple types of cells within a particular group, adult stem cells are multipotent

5

Autocrine cell - cell communication

The signal released by the inducer cell acts in itself

6

Paracrine cell-cell communication

Signals act on cells in local area

7

Juxtacrine cell-cell communication

Inducer cell directly stimulates receptors of adjacent responder cell

8

Endocrine cell-cell communication

Secreted hormones from inducer travel via blood stream to responder cells in distant target tissues

9

Growth factor

Peptides that promote differentiation

10

How are nutrients transmitted from the mother to the fetus?

Diffusion (gradients) : example - [oxygen] is greater in maternal blood than fetal blood —> promotes diffusion of oxygen from maternal blood supply to fetal blood supply

11

How does the placenta offer immune protection?

Many pathogens are too large to cross the placental barrier via diffusion. Also, antibodies are diffused across placenta to fetus because fetus is not capable of making own antibodies yet.

12

Key concept: where does gas exchange occur in fetus?

The placenta