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Flashcards in Karl Popper & Thomas Kuhn - The Philosophy of Science Deck (22)
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1
Q

What period were Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn influential in?

A

Mid 1900s. (Karl Popper published The Logic of Scientific Discovery in 1959, Thomas Kuhn published The Structure of Scientific Revolution in 1962).

2
Q

What did Karl Popper believe that a great part of philosophy could be reduced to?

A

Syntax (grammar).

3
Q

Name the hierarchy of three types of statements that logical positivists constructed (like Karl Popper).

A
  1. Logical true statements.
  2. Statements based on induction.
  3. Statements based on metaphysics.
4
Q

What other school in Psychology supported logical positivism?

A

Behaviourism.

5
Q

What was Popper’s main question in Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959)?

A

Can you observe certain knowledge?

White swan example

6
Q

Briefly explain Popper’s method of deduction.

A

We formulate a general rule (hypothesis). We make some observations that might falsify the hypothesis and then revise the hypothesis on the basis of the observations.

7
Q

Briefly explain the method of induction.

A

We make some observations. We infer a general rule.

This is not as reliable (e.g. white swan example)!

8
Q

What did Popper classify as science and non-science?

A

If statements could be falsified then this was considered science, and vice versa.

9
Q

Who was Popper’s primary target?

A

Freud. Many of his theories were unfalsifiable (e.g. Oedipus Complex).

10
Q

What did Peter Wason suggest about how people formulate hypotheses?

A

People look for positive cases and this limits their search for disconfirming information.
This theory went against Popper’s model!

11
Q

Briefly explain Watson’s failure to eliminate hypotheses.

A

People do not spontaneously generate information to falsify hypotheses.

12
Q

What did Watson’s work lead to in the UK?

A

A large interest in reasoning in UK Cognitive Psychology.

Researchers like Philip Johnson-Laird pursued this.

13
Q

What did Thomas Kuhn argue against?

A

The development by accumulation.

Where historical time and value of science are directly proportional

14
Q

What were the three stages Kuhn believed science went through?

A

Pre-paradigmatic.
Paradigmatic.
Paradigm Shift (scientific revolutions).

15
Q

Explain the concept of pre-paradigmatic science (Kuhn).

A

Scientists don’t agree on anything. Share few assumptions.

Communicate in books rather than articles.

16
Q

Explain the concept of paradigmatic science (Kuhn).

A

This is where science is non-novel - no major novelties, conceptual or phenomenal.
Science is not testing established knowledge.
Science is not 100% formalised - it is learnt through scientific education and is based on familiarity rather than formal rules.

17
Q

Explain the concept of a scientific revolution (Kuhn).

A

Science doesn’t know what is true or false.
Science doesn’t know the best way to study it either.
Ontology + epistemology is unsure.

18
Q

Name an example of a scientific revolution.

A

Cognitive psychology over behaviourism.

19
Q

Name the 3 main psychologists’ influence on Kuhn.

A

Kuhn uses the rabbit-duck illusion to explain how a scientific revolution feels.
Paradigms described as conceptual schemas (Gestalt), they determine what scientists see and pay attention to.
Analogy between a paradigm shift and a child’s cognitive growth between Piaget’s stages of development.

20
Q

What does Kuhn believe happens to the old paradigm after the revolution?

A

Some people still cling onto it and are eventually read out of the profession.

21
Q

What’s the main reason we don’t see paradigm shifts when we look back?

A

Textbooks show history as a development by accumulation story. They make history look linear and cumulative.

22
Q

Name some ways in which Kuhn influenced the way the history of Psychology was written.

A

Wrote Structure.
Writing the history of Psychology became professional (1965). Example: APA.
Critical histories: studies of textbook myths, race and IQ debates, foremothers of Psychology.