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AP Language and Composition > Key AP Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Key AP Terminology Deck (77):
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Allegory

A narrative in which all elements of the story depict multiple levels of meanings and significance.

ex. Animal Farm by George Orwell

1

Alliteration

Sequential repetition of a similar initial sound (usually consonants)

Ex. She sells seashells by the seashore

2

Allusion

A literary, historical, religious or mythological reference

Ex. Comparison between Frederick Douglass and Job

3

Anaphora

Repetition of the same words or phrases at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses.

Ex. "It takes a family; it takes teachers; it takes clergy..."

4

Antithesis

The juxtaposition of sharply contrasting ideas in balanced structure

Ex. "To err is human, to forgive divine."

5

Aphorism

A concise statement designed to make a point or illustrate a common belief.

Ex. "Spare the rod and spoil the child."

6

Apostrophe

The act of speaking to an inanimate object or person or idea that is not present.

Ex. King Lear- "Ingatitude! Thous marble-hearted fiend..."

7

Appeals to... authority, emotion or logic

Rhetorical argument in which the speaker claims authority in a field (ethos), plays upon emotions (pathos) or appeals to reasoning (logos).

8

Assonance

Repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in successive or proximate words

Ex. "shE sElls sEashells by the sEashore"

9

Asyndeton

Syntactical structure in which conjugations are omitted in a series

Ex. "I came, I saw, I conquered."

Opposite of polysyndeton

10

Attitude

Sense expressed by the tone of voice or mood of the piece; the author's feelings toward his or her subject, characters or theme

11

Begging the question

Argumentative ploy where the argued sidesteps the question, avoiding the real issue at hand

12

Canon

That which has been accepted as authentic

Ex. Canon according to the theories of Einstein

13

Chiasmus

Figure of speech where the order of the terms in the first half of a parallel clause is reversed in the second.

Ex. "I am stuck on band aid, and band aid's stuck on me"

14

Claim

An assertion of something as fact

15

Colloquial

A term identifying the diction of common ordinary folks in a specific region or area, aka slang

16

Compare and contrast

A mode of discourse in which two or more things are compared, contrasted or both. Find similarities and differences.

17

Conceit

A comparison of two unlikely things drawn out in literature, such as an extended metaphor.

Ex. Richard Selzer's "The Knife" compares surgery to a religious ritual

18

Connotation

The implied, underlying meaning or feeling behind a word or phrase. Not the dictionary definition

19

Consonance

Repetition of two or more consonants with a change in intervening vowels.

Ex. Splash splash, click clack

20

Convention

An accepted manner, model or tradition

Ex. Aristotle's conventions of tragedy

21

Critique

An assessment or analysis of something

22

Deductive reasoning

A method of argument in which specific statements and conclusions are drawn from general principles; from general to specific.

23

Dialect

Language or speech of a specific region or group

24

Diction

The word choice the author uses to persuade or convey tone, purpose or effect

25

Didactic

Writing that has an instructive purpose or lesson, often associated with being dry or pompous.

Ex. Aesop's Fables

26

Elegy

A poem or prose that laments or mediates on the death of a person or persons

27

Epistrophe

The repetition of a phrase at the end of successive sentences

Ex. "If... their families will flourish. If... their families will flourish"

28

Epitaph

Writing in praise of a dead person, often on a headstone

29

Eulogy

A speech or written passage in praise of a deceased person

30

Euphemism

A nicer way of saying something harsh

Ex. "She was given a pink slip," instead of "She was fired."

31

Exposition

Writing that claims its own meaning or purpose

32

Extended metaphor

A series of comparisons within a piece of writing

33

Figurative language/figure of speech

Language with levels of meaning, expressed through figures of speech such as personification, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, etc.

34

Flashback

An earlier event is inserted into a narration.

35

Genre

A type or class of literature

36

Homily

A sermon, serious speech, talk or lecture involving moral or spiritual life.

37

Hyperbole

Overstatement characterized by exaggerated language for emphasis

38

Imagery

Any sensory detail or evocation in a work; the use of figurative language to evoke a feeling, call an idea to mind or describe an object.

39

Imperative sentence

A type of sentence that gives instructions, advice or commands

40

Inductive reasoning

General statements are drawn from specific principles, opposite of deductive reasoning

41

Inference

A conclusion or proposition arrived at by considering facts , observations or other data.

42

Irony

Contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, the intended meaning is often the opposite of what is stated.

43

Isocolon

Parallel structure in which the elements are similar not only grammatically but in length.

Ex. "Many are called, but few are chosen."

44

Jargon

Technical language of a trade, profession or group

45

Juxtaposition

The location of one thing adjacent to another creates an effect, reveals an attitude, etc.

46

Litote

A figure of speech that emphasizes its subject by understatement.

47

Loose sentence

A long sentence that begins with the main clause, followed by several dependent clauses.

Ex. "The child ran, frenzied and ignoring all hazards, as if being chased by demons."

48

Metaphor

A comparison between two things without using like or as

Ex. "It is the east, and Juliet is the sun."

49

Metonymy

An attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something.

Ex. Referring to the president as the "White House"

50

Mode of discourse

The way information is presented in written or spoken form; type of writing

Ex. Narration exposition, description and argumentation

51

Moos

Feeling resulting from the tone of a piece as well as the writer's/narrator's attitude and POV

52

Narrative

A mode of discourse that tells a story

53

Onomatopoeia

A word capturing or approximating the sound of what it describes.

54

Oxymoron

A figure of speech that combines two contradictory elements

Ex. Wise fool, baggy tights, deafening silence

55

Paradox

A statement that seems contradictory but is probably true

Ex. "Fighting for peace."

56

Parallel structure

Use of similar forms in writing for nouns, verbs, phrases or thoughts

Ex. "Jane enjoys reading, writing and skiing."

57

Periodic sentence

A long sentence in which the main clause is not completed until the end.

Ex. "The child, who looked as if she were being chased by demons, frenzied and ignoring all hazards, ran."

58

Personification

Giving a nonhuman object human-like qualities

59

Point of view

The relation in which an author stands to a subject of discourse

60

Prose

The ordinary form of written language without metrical structure, in contrast to verse and poetry

61

Realism

Attempting to describe nature and life without idealization and with attention to detail

62

Rebuttal/refutation

An argument technique where opposing arguments are anticipated and countered

63

Rhetoric

The art of using words to persuade in writing or speaking

64

Rhetorical question

A question asked for stylistic effect and is not expected to be answered

65

Sarcasm

Form of verbal irony in which apparent praise is actually critical

66

Satire

A literary work that holds up human failings to ridicule and censure

67

Simile

Direct comparison using like or as

68

Style

The manner in which a writer combines and arranges words, ideas and utilizes syntax and structure

69

Symbolism

Use of a person, place, event or pattern that stands for something else

70

Synecdoche

A figure of speech in which a part signifies a whole

Ex. 50 masts represent 50 ships

71

Syntax

The way words are out together to form phrases, clauses and sentences

72

Theme

Central or dominant idea or focus of a work

73

Tone

Attitude of the writer toward the subject or theme

74

Voice

The speakers take on the idea based on the passage

75

Zeugma

A grammatically correct construction in which a word, verb or adjective, is applied to two or more nouns without being repeated.

Ex. "He took my wallet and the bus"

76

Exigence

Why the author feels the need to speak on a particular subject