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Where is CSF located?

Located in the subarachnoid space.


What percent of CSF makes up total brain weight?

10-20% of brain weight


How much CSF is in the average adult?

140 ml


What is the production rate of CSF?

Production rate: up to 21 ml/hr. On average 50-100 ml produced daily


How much CSF is removed in a LP? How fast does it get regenerated?

usual amount removed for an LP (4-8mls) is regenerated in less than an hour.


Granulating wound bed:

healthy red tissue which is deposited during the repair process, presents as pinkish/red colored moist tissue and comprises of newly formed collagen, elastin and capillary networks. The tissue is well vascularized and bleeds easily


Epithelializing wound bed:

process by which the wound surface is covered by new epithelium, this begins when the wound has filled with granulation tissue. The tissue is pink, almost white, and only occurs on top of healthy granulation tissue


Sloughy wound bed:

the presence of devitalized yellowish tissue. Is formed by an accumulation of dead cells. Must not be confused with pus


Necrotic wound bed:

wound containing dead tissue. It may appear hard dry and black. Dead connective tissue may appear grey. The presence of dead tissue in a wound prevents healing


Hyper granulating wound bed:

granulation tissue grows above the wound margin. This occurs when the proliferative phase of healing is prolonged usually as a result of bacterial imbalance or irritant forces.


What is a Hyper granulating wound bed a characteristic of?

a chronic wound


How is a wound measured?

Assessment and evaluation of the healing rate and treatment modalities are important components of wound care. All wounds require a two-dimensional assessment of the wound opening and a three- dimensional assessment of any cavity or tracking


What are the Two-dimensional measurements of a wound and how are they measured?

Use a paper tape to measure the length and width in millimeters. The circumference of the wound is traced if the wound edges are not even - often required for chronic wounds. (You may also consider photography)


How do we measure a wound depth? (Three -dimensional measures)

the wound depth is measured using a dampened cotton tip applicator


A wound appears to have Raised wound edges, what would this indicated?

where the wound margin is elevated above the surrounding tissue may indicate pressure, trauma or malignant changes


A wound appears to have Rolled wound edges, what would this indicated?

rolled down towards the wound bed may indicate wound stagnation or wound chronicity


A wound appears to have Contraction of the wound edges, what would this indicated?

wound edges are coming together, signs of healing


What is sensation?

increased pain or the absence of sensation should be noted


How do healthy wound edges appear?

Healthy wound edges present as advancing pink epithelium growing over mature granulated tissue.


A wound appears to have dusky wound edges, what would this indicated?

dusky edges indicate hypoxia


A wound appears to have erythema wound edges, what would this indicated?

erythema indicates physiological inflammatory response or cellulitis


What is Exudate?

Is produced by all acute and chronic wounds (to a greater or lesser extent) as part of the natural healing process. It plays an essential part in the healing process.


How does exudate play an essential part in the healing process?

•Contains nutrients, energy and growth factors for metabolizing cells
•Contains high quantities of white blood cells
•Cleanses the wound
•Maintains a moist environment
•Promotes epithelialization


What happens if there is too much exudate? Too little?

Too much exudate leads to maceration and degradation of skin while too little can result in the wound bed drying out.


What is a Blood Borne Pathogen?

Pathogenic microorganisms present in blood and other potentially infectious material (OPIM) that are able to cause disease in humans


What are the 3 big BBP?

• Hepatitis B virus (HBV, HepB)
• Hepatitis C virus (HCV, HepC)
• Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)


What is the role of a splint?

Splints applied initially (ED, UC) to immobilize joint above and joint below. Splints allow the soft tissue to swell. Can change to cast after swelling reduced.


What safety precautions do we have to keep in mind when applying a splint?

Pad all bony prominences well & Do not wrap too tightly


When do we use a Long arm splint?

Distal humerus fx, forearm fx, elbow injuries


When do we use a Sugartong splint?

Distal radius fx, radial/ulnar fx