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A branch of humanism associated with northern Europe. Like their Italian counterparts, the humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian content. The leaders like Desiderius Erasmus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.

Christian humanism

1

The scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome. Contributed to the promotion if a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.

Humanism

2

The everyday language of a region or country. Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the language. Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.

Vernacular

3

European monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. They also negotiated a new relationship w/ the Catholic Church. Some of them include Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.

New monarchs

4

A direct tax on the French peasantry. It was one of the most impt. sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.

Taille

5

The centuries-long Christian "reconquest" of Spain from the Muslims. It culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslim stronghold, Granada.

Reconquista

6

A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled altogether.

Indulgence

7

Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned this religion for advocating the complete separation of church and state.

Anabaptist

8

Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned. Calvin declared that "by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction."

Predestination

9

French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.

Huguenots

10

Rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs. For example, both Henry IV of FRA and Elizabeth I of ENG subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.

Politiques

11

The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old World and the New World.

Columbian Exchange

12

Economic philosophy calling for close govt. regulation of the econ. The theory emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports. They supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. This favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver.

Mercantilism

13

A preindustrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural ppl who worked on them in their own homes. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid guild regulations.

Putting-out system

14

A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share the profits in proportion to the amount they invest. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies.

Joint-stock company

15

A system of govt. in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power. These monarchs were not limited by constitutional restraints.

Absolutism

16

The idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God. Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, a French bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV, provided the theological justification for the divine right of kings by declaring that "the state of monarchy is the supremest thing on earth, for kings are not only God's lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself are called gods. In the scriptures kings are called Gods, and their power is compared to the divine powers."

Divine right of kings

17

French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. They played a key role in establishing French absolutism.

Intendants

18

A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652. It played a key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace.

Fronde

19

System of forced labor used in Eastern Europe. Peasants usually owed three or four days a week of forced labor. The system was abolished in 1848.

Robot

20

Prussia's landowning nobility. They supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.

Junkers

21

The use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover patterns in nature. These patterns or natural laws can be described w/ math formulas.

scientific method

22

18th century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. They include ppl like Voltaire who fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to ppl of talent.

Philosophes

23

The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature. Followers believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason. (Watchmaker)

Deism

24

A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a ppl as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, it is identical to the rule of law.

General Will

25

A system of govt. supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the ppl. These monarchs supported religious tolerance, increased econ. productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies. Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great were the best-known monarchs of this type.

Enlightened despotism

26

The process by which British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops. The Enclosure Acts led to an increase in the size of farms held by large landowners.

Enclosure Movement

27

The innovations in farm production that began in 18th-century Holland and spread to England. These advances replaced the open-field agriculture system w/ a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture.

Agricultural revolution

28

Group of 18th century French economists led by Francois Quesnay. They criticized mercantilist regulations and called for free trade.

Physiocrats

29

Phrase coined by Adam Smith to refer to the self-regulating nature of a free marketplace.

Invisible hand

30

French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. They claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.

Parlements

31

A moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. The party favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France's borders.

Girondins

32

A radical republican party during the French Revolution. Led by Maximillien Robespierre, the party unleashed the Reign of Terror. Other key leaders included Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Lafayette was not of this party.

Jacobins

33

The working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics.

Sans-Culottes

34

The French policy of conscripting all males into the army. This created a new type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy.

Levee en Masse

35

Name given to the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution. It is associated w/ the end of the Reign of Terror and reassertion of bourgeoisie power in the Directory.

Thermidorian Reaction

36

The principle that rulers who have been driven form their thrones should be restored to power. For example, the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France.

Legitimacy

37

A strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna.

Balance of Power

38

Political philosophy that in the 19th century advocated representative govt. dominated by the propertied classes, minimal govt. interference in the econ., religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech.

Liberalism

39

Political philosophy that in the 19th century supported legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and est. churches. Followers favored gradual change in the est. social order.

Conservatism

40

Belief that a nation consists of a group of ppl who share similar traditions, history, and language. Nationalists argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a community. A person's greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state.

nationalism

41

Philosophical and artistic movement in late 18th and early 19th century Europe that represented a reaction against the Neoclassical emphasis upon reason. Artists in this era stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature.

Romanticism

42

A program of political reforms sponsored by British workers in the late 1830s. Their demands included universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of the House of Commons.

Chartism

43

A free-trade union established among the major German states in 1834.

Zollverein

44

A secret revolutionary society working to unify Italy in the 1820s

Carbonari

45

A social movement of British textile artisans in the early 19th century who protested against the changes produced by the industrial Revolution. They believed that the new industrial machinery would eliminate their jobs. They responded by attempting to destroy the mechanized looms and other new machines.

Luddites

46

A theory associated w/ Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of "the greatest happiness for the greatest number." Bentham argued that this principle should be applied to each nation's govt., econ., and judicial system

Utilitarianism

47

Early 19th-century socialists who hoped to replace the overly competitive capitalist structure w/ planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation. Charles Fourier and Louis Blanc believed that property should be communally owned.

Utopian socialists

48

Political and econ. philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. They believed that history is the result of a class conflict that will end with the triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie. The new classless society would abolish private property.

Marxism

49

A wave of late-19th century industrialization that was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads. This period also witnessed the spread of industrialization from Great Britain to western Europe and the US. Both the US and Germany soon rivaled Great Britain.

Second Industrial Revolution

50

The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used this to justify their success.

Social Darwinism

51

"The politics of reality"; used to describe the tough, practical politics in which idealism and romanticism play no part. Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Benso di Cavour were the leading practitioners of this

Realpolitik

52

A radical political movement that advocated bringing industry and govt. under the control of federations of labor unions. Followers endorsed direct actions such as strikes and sabotage.

Syndicalism

53

A govt. in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner. The Romanov dynasty in Russia is the best example of this

Autocracy

54

The Russian parliament created after the revolution of 1905

Duma

55

The policy of extending one country's rule over other lands by conquest or economic domination

Imperialism

56

A region dominated by, but not directly ruled by, a foreign nation

Sphere of influence

57

President Woodrow Wilson's idealistic peace aims. Wilson stressed national self-determination, the rights of small countries, freedom of the seas, and free trade.

Fourteen Points

58

A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.

Bolsheviks

59

A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to stimulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. It utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.

New Economic Policy

60

Philosophy that God, reason, and progress are all myths. Humans must accept responsibility for their actions. This responsibility causes an overwhelming sense of dread and anguish.It reflects the sense of isolation and alienation in the 20th century.

Existentialism

61

A scientific theory associated w/ Albert Einstein. It holds that time and space do not exist separately. Instead, they are a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured.

Relativity

62

A political system in which the govt. has total control over the lives of individual citizens.

Totalitarianism

63

A political system that combines an authoritarian govt. w/ a corporate economy. This type of govt. glorifies its leader, appeals to nationalism, controls the media, and represses individual liberties.

Fascism

64

Prosperous landowning peasants in tsarist Russia. Joseph Stalin accused them of being class enemies of the poorer peasants. Stalin "liquidated [them] as a class" by executing them and expropriating their land to form collective farms.

Kulaks

65

An econ. theory based on the ideas of 20th century British economist John Maynard Keynes. According to this theory, govts. can spend their economies out of a depression by using deficit-spending to encourage employment and stimulate econ. growth.

Keynesian Economics

66

A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated w/ Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler

Appeasement

67

The name of a US foreign poloicy designed to contain or block the spread of Soviet policy. Inspired by George F. Kennan, it was expressed in the Truman Doctrine and implemented in the Marshall Plan and the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance.

Containment

68

The process by which colonies gained their independence from the imperial European powers after WWII

Decolonization

69

The policy of liberalization of the Stalinist system in the Soviet Union. As carried out by Nikita Khrushchev, it meant denouncing Joseph Stalin's cult of personality, producing more consumer goods, allowing greater cultural freedom, and pursuing peaceful coexistence with the West.

De-Stalinization

70

Assertion that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need. The doctrine justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.

Brezhnev Doctrine

71

The relaxation of tensions between US and USSR. It was introduced by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon. Examples include the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), expanded trade w/ the Soviet Union, and President Nixon's trips to China and Russia.

Detente

72

A Polish labor union founded in 1980 by Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz. It contested Communist Party programs and eventually ousted the party from the Polish govt.

Solidarity

73

Policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. It resulted in a new openness of speech, reduced censorship, and greater criticism of Communist Party policies.

Glasnost

74

An econ. policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Meaning "restructuring," it called for less govt. regulation and greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture.

Perestroika

75

A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system.

Welfare state