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Flashcards in Key Terms Deck (63):
1

Courtiers

We’re usually members of the nobility. Courtiers spent much of their lives with Elizabeth I.

2

Extraordinary taxation

Occasional, additional taxation to pay for unexpected expenses, especially war.

3

Militia

A military force of ordinary people, rather than soldiers, usually raised in an emergency.

4

Divine right

Belief that the monarch’s right to rule cake from God.

5

Patron

Someone who gives encouragement or financial support to an individual or a cause. For example, Elizabeth I was a patron of many explorers during her reign. She funded their voyages and publicly praises their efforts.

6

Crown

With a capital ‘C’, the Crown refers to the monarch and their government.

7

Succession

The issue of who was going to succeed the throne after the existing monarch died.

8

Roman Catholic

The form of Christianity followed throughout the whole of Western Europe until the 16th century. A feature of Roman Catholicism includes allegiance to the pope, the head of the Catholic Church.

9

Queen regent

‘Regnant’ is a Latin word and means ‘reigning’. Elizabeth was a queen regnant because she ruled in her own relight, like her sister, Mary.

10

Mass

Roman Catholic service at which Catholics are given bread and wine. Catholics believe that this involves a miracle: the bread and wine is turned into the body and blood of Christ.

11

The Reformation

A challenge to the teachings and power of the Roman Catholic Church. This movement is said to have begun in Europe in 1517.

12

Intermediary

Someone who acts as a go-between when direct communication is not possible.

13

Last Supper

The last meal that Christ shared with his disciples (followers). Commemorating it is very important to Christians as it is a reminder that Christ sacrificed his life to save humanity.

14

Sacraments

Special church ceremonies.

15

Holy Communion

Another name for mass, often used in Protestant churches.

16

Clergy

Religious leaders, such as bishops and priests.

17

Diocese

An area looked after by a bishop.

18

German states

Germany did not exist in the 16th century. There were, however, many (usually small) states where German was spoken but they were independent of each other. These states formed part of the Holy Roman Empire.

19

Altars

The table in a church where mass is performed.

20

Ecclesiastical

An adjective used to describe things to do with the Church.

21

Royal Supremacy

This is when the monarch is head of the Church.

22

Pilgrimage

A journey to an important religious monument, shrine or place.

23

Saints

A saint is someone who lived an exceptional, holy life. To be made a saint by the Catholic Church, several conditions have to be met, including having lived a good life.

24

Recusants

Catholics who were unwilling to attend church services laid down by the Elizabethan religious settlement.

25

Papacy

The system of Church government ruled by the pope.

26

Heretics

People who have controversial opinions and beliefs at odds with those held by the rest of society, but especially those who deny the teachings of the Catholic Church.

27

Martyr

Someone who is killed for his or her beliefs, especially religious beliefs.

28

Holy Roman Empire

A large grouping of different states and kingdoms covering a large area of central Europe, including much of modern Germany and parts of Poland and Austria. Although each state had its own ruler, the leaders of the seven largest countries elected a Holy Roman Emperor.

29

Trade embargo

When government ban trade with another country.

30

Exocommunicated

A very severe punishment, imposed by the pope, expelling people from the Catholic Church.

31

Rome

Capital of Italy- but also used to mean the pope or the Catholic Church.

32

Anointed

During a coronation, Holy oil is applied to the monarch. This is known as ‘anointing’ and is the most important part of the coronation as it is when the person becomes the monarch.

33

Abdicate

A king or queen giving up their throne.

34

Civil war

A war between people of the same country.

35

Conspiracy

A secret plan with the aim of doing something against the law.

36

Papal bull

A written order issued by the pope.

37

Council of the North

The council of the North was used to implement Elizabeth’s laws and authority in the north of England, as it was far from London and Elizabeth’s reach. The North was sometimes unstable and often under threat from Scottish raids. It was therefore necessary to have a Council with special powers that could take action in times of lawlessness and emergency.

38

Hanged, drawn and quartered

A type of punishment used when the accused was found guilty of high treason. The accused would be hanged until near dead, cut open, have their intestines removed, and were finally chopped into four pieces.

39

Cipher

A secret way of writing in code.

40

Agents provocateurs

French term referring to agents who became a part of groups suspected of wrongdoing, and encourage other members to break the law so that potential threats can be identified and arrested.

41

Foreign policy

The aims and objectives that guide a nation’s relations with other states. The general aim is to benefit the nation. Objectives can include: trade, expanding into more territory and/or gaining more economic resources and building alliances. Foreign policy can focus on defending what a country has (a defensive policy) or conquering other lands (an aggressive policy).

42

New world

North and South America. Europeans were only aware of their existence from 1492.

43

Privateer

Historically, individuals (usually merchants or explorers) with their own armed ships that capture for their cargoes, often with the authorisation or support of their government.

44

Circumnavigate

To travel all the way around the world.

45

Autonomy

The right to self-government, so people of one country can manage its own affairs.

46

Sacking

To rob a town or city using violence, causing a lot of damage, usually in wartime.

47

Expeditionary force

An armed force sent to a foreign country to achieve a specific function or objective.

48

Mercenary

A soldier who fights for money rather than a nation or cause.

49

Fireships

Empty ships set on fire and sent in the direction of the enemy to cause damage and confusion.

50

Propaganda

Biased information used to promote a point-of-view.

51

Social mobility

Being able to change your position in society.

52

Apprentice

Someone learning a trade or skill. In Elizabethan times, apprentices were not paid. In fact, it cost money to be an apprentice. Once qualified, skilled craftsmen usually enjoyed a very good standard of living.

53

Rhetoric

The art of public speaking and persuasion.

54

Rural depopulation

When the population of the countryside falls as people move away in search of a better life.

55

Arable farming

Growing crops on farm land.

56

Subsistence farming

Growing just enough to feed the family but not to sell.

57

Vagabonds

Vagabonds, or vagrants, we’re homeless people without jobs, who roamed the countryside begging for money, perhaps stealing or committing other crimes in order to survive.

58

Economic recession

When a fall in demand leads to falling prices and businesses losing money. This can lead to businesses failing and unemployment going up.

59

Quadrant

Similar to an astrolabe, it was used by sailors to help with navigation at sea. It was the shape of a quarter circle.

60

Astrolabe

An instrument used by sailors to help with navigation at sea. It was circular.

61

Colonies

Lands under the control or influence of another country, occupied by settlers from that country.

62

Monopoly

When one person, or company, controls the supply of something. This means they can charge whatever price they like for it.

63

Barter

Exchanging goods for other goods, instead of paying for something outright.