Flashcards in Key Terms Deck (63):
We’re usually members of the nobility. Courtiers spent much of their lives with Elizabeth I.
Occasional, additional taxation to pay for unexpected expenses, especially war.
A military force of ordinary people, rather than soldiers, usually raised in an emergency.
Belief that the monarch’s right to rule cake from God.
Someone who gives encouragement or financial support to an individual or a cause. For example, Elizabeth I was a patron of many explorers during her reign. She funded their voyages and publicly praises their efforts.
With a capital ‘C’, the Crown refers to the monarch and their government.
The issue of who was going to succeed the throne after the existing monarch died.
The form of Christianity followed throughout the whole of Western Europe until the 16th century. A feature of Roman Catholicism includes allegiance to the pope, the head of the Catholic Church.
‘Regnant’ is a Latin word and means ‘reigning’. Elizabeth was a queen regnant because she ruled in her own relight, like her sister, Mary.
Roman Catholic service at which Catholics are given bread and wine. Catholics believe that this involves a miracle: the bread and wine is turned into the body and blood of Christ.
A challenge to the teachings and power of the Roman Catholic Church. This movement is said to have begun in Europe in 1517.
Someone who acts as a go-between when direct communication is not possible.
The last meal that Christ shared with his disciples (followers). Commemorating it is very important to Christians as it is a reminder that Christ sacrificed his life to save humanity.
Special church ceremonies.
Another name for mass, often used in Protestant churches.
Religious leaders, such as bishops and priests.
An area looked after by a bishop.
Germany did not exist in the 16th century. There were, however, many (usually small) states where German was spoken but they were independent of each other. These states formed part of the Holy Roman Empire.
The table in a church where mass is performed.
An adjective used to describe things to do with the Church.
This is when the monarch is head of the Church.
A journey to an important religious monument, shrine or place.
A saint is someone who lived an exceptional, holy life. To be made a saint by the Catholic Church, several conditions have to be met, including having lived a good life.
Catholics who were unwilling to attend church services laid down by the Elizabethan religious settlement.
The system of Church government ruled by the pope.
People who have controversial opinions and beliefs at odds with those held by the rest of society, but especially those who deny the teachings of the Catholic Church.
Someone who is killed for his or her beliefs, especially religious beliefs.
Holy Roman Empire
A large grouping of different states and kingdoms covering a large area of central Europe, including much of modern Germany and parts of Poland and Austria. Although each state had its own ruler, the leaders of the seven largest countries elected a Holy Roman Emperor.
When government ban trade with another country.
A very severe punishment, imposed by the pope, expelling people from the Catholic Church.
Capital of Italy- but also used to mean the pope or the Catholic Church.
During a coronation, Holy oil is applied to the monarch. This is known as ‘anointing’ and is the most important part of the coronation as it is when the person becomes the monarch.
A king or queen giving up their throne.
A war between people of the same country.
A secret plan with the aim of doing something against the law.
A written order issued by the pope.
Council of the North
The council of the North was used to implement Elizabeth’s laws and authority in the north of England, as it was far from London and Elizabeth’s reach. The North was sometimes unstable and often under threat from Scottish raids. It was therefore necessary to have a Council with special powers that could take action in times of lawlessness and emergency.
Hanged, drawn and quartered
A type of punishment used when the accused was found guilty of high treason. The accused would be hanged until near dead, cut open, have their intestines removed, and were finally chopped into four pieces.
A secret way of writing in code.
French term referring to agents who became a part of groups suspected of wrongdoing, and encourage other members to break the law so that potential threats can be identified and arrested.
The aims and objectives that guide a nation’s relations with other states. The general aim is to benefit the nation. Objectives can include: trade, expanding into more territory and/or gaining more economic resources and building alliances. Foreign policy can focus on defending what a country has (a defensive policy) or conquering other lands (an aggressive policy).
North and South America. Europeans were only aware of their existence from 1492.
Historically, individuals (usually merchants or explorers) with their own armed ships that capture for their cargoes, often with the authorisation or support of their government.
To travel all the way around the world.
The right to self-government, so people of one country can manage its own affairs.
To rob a town or city using violence, causing a lot of damage, usually in wartime.
An armed force sent to a foreign country to achieve a specific function or objective.
A soldier who fights for money rather than a nation or cause.
Empty ships set on fire and sent in the direction of the enemy to cause damage and confusion.
Biased information used to promote a point-of-view.
Being able to change your position in society.
Someone learning a trade or skill. In Elizabethan times, apprentices were not paid. In fact, it cost money to be an apprentice. Once qualified, skilled craftsmen usually enjoyed a very good standard of living.
The art of public speaking and persuasion.
When the population of the countryside falls as people move away in search of a better life.
Growing crops on farm land.
Growing just enough to feed the family but not to sell.
Vagabonds, or vagrants, we’re homeless people without jobs, who roamed the countryside begging for money, perhaps stealing or committing other crimes in order to survive.
When a fall in demand leads to falling prices and businesses losing money. This can lead to businesses failing and unemployment going up.
Similar to an astrolabe, it was used by sailors to help with navigation at sea. It was the shape of a quarter circle.
An instrument used by sailors to help with navigation at sea. It was circular.
Lands under the control or influence of another country, occupied by settlers from that country.
When one person, or company, controls the supply of something. This means they can charge whatever price they like for it.