Flashcards in Kidneys pt.1 Deck (36)
What shape do the kidneys have?
They are bean shaped
What color are the kidneys grossly?
They are red-brownish because of their high level of vascularization
What is the position of the kidney?
They are retroperitoneal lying on the posterior abdominal wall in the retroperitoneal cavity, on either side of the vertebral column mostly in the lumbar regions, from T11/T12 - L3
What vertebral level are the kidneys found at?
- Around T12-L3/L4 left kidney
- Around L1-L4 right kidney
Why are the kidneys not positioned symmetrically in the abdominal cavity?
Due to the position of the liver
What is the difference between the left and right kidney?
The right kidney is:
- 2cm lower
- Slightly shorter (rare to be more than 1 cm shorter)
- Slightly further to the midline
Is the kidney symmetrical?
The kidney is not symmetrical
Describe the posterior and anterior surface of the kidney
The posterior surface is flatter and lays on the musculature of the posterior abdominal cavity while the anterior surface is convex and sticks out towards the peritoneal cavity
Describe the poles of the kidney
Two poles: the superior pole is more rounded, while the inferior pole is more angled.
How many margins does the kidney have?
- Lateral margin
- Medial margin
Describe the shape of the lateral margin of the kidney
Entirely convex from the superior to the inferior pole
Describe the shape of the medial margin of the kidney
Convex superiorly and inferiorly but has a medial concave depression known as the hilum
What is the function of the hilum?
- Serves as an entry and exit passage for the renal vessels and nerves - Where the renal pelvis is found
What is the renal pelvis?
A funnel shaped origin of the ureter where all the urine is collected from the kidney
What does the renal pelvis become?
It converges to form a cylindrical tube known as the ureter
When is the ureter considered to begin?
Considered to begin where the vessels of the kidney exit
What is renal ectopia?
Renal ectopia refers to kidneys that is not located in its usual anatomical or physiological position
Where do the renal veins drain?
They drain into the inferior vena cava bilaterally
What does the renal artery do as it enters the hilum?
Near the renal hilum, the renal artery divides into an anterior and posterior division and these divide into segmental arteries while entering through the hilum
What does an organ that is retroperitoneum mean?
Only their anterior surface is covered by parietal peritoneum
What covers the external surface of the kidney?
Perinephric/Perirenal fat surrounds the capsule of the kidney and its vessels (extending into the renal sinus), which is enclosed by the Perirenal (renal/Gerota's) fascia and then again covered by paraphrenic/pararenal fat
What is the renal fascia made of?
The renal fascia is a fibrous membrane made of two layers:
- Anterior perirenal (renal) fascia
- Posterior perirenal (renal) fascia
What does the anterior renal fascia fuse with?
The anterior renal fascia fuses with the posterior parietal peritoneum
What does the posterior renal fascia fuse with?
The posterior renal fascia fuses with the fascia that covers the muscular layer of the posterior wall of the abdomen
What does the renal fascia fuse with superiorly ?
The renal fascia fuses superiorly with the fasciae that enwraps the inferior surface of the diaphragm.
What does the renal fascia do inferiorly?
The renal fascia opens inferiorly into the subperitoneal space of the pelvis
What do the renal fascia fuse with laterally?
The two fasciae fuse together and attach to the fascia of the transverse abdominal muscle (transversus abdominis)
What does the renal fascia do medially?
The fascia of one kidney is open and communicating with the fasciae of the
- Splits into the prerenal fascia and postrenal fascia
What does the renal fascia do in each direction?
Fuses in every anatomical direction except medially and inferiorly
- Anteriorly: Fuses
- Posteriorly: Fuses
- Medially: Open
- Inferiorly: Open
- Laterally: Fuses