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Anatomy- Renal > Kidneys pt.1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidneys pt.1 Deck (36)
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What shape do the kidneys have?

They are bean shaped


What color are the kidneys grossly?

They are red-brownish because of their high level of vascularization


What is the position of the kidney?

They are retroperitoneal lying on the posterior abdominal wall in the retroperitoneal cavity, on either side of the vertebral column mostly in the lumbar regions, from T11/T12 - L3


What vertebral level are the kidneys found at?

- Around T12-L3/L4 left kidney
- Around L1-L4 right kidney


Why are the kidneys not positioned symmetrically in the abdominal cavity?

Due to the position of the liver


What is the difference between the left and right kidney?

The right kidney is:
- 2cm lower
- Slightly shorter (rare to be more than 1 cm shorter)
- Slightly further to the midline


Is the kidney symmetrical?

The kidney is not symmetrical


Describe the posterior and anterior surface of the kidney

The posterior surface is flatter and lays on the musculature of the posterior abdominal cavity while the anterior surface is convex and sticks out towards the peritoneal cavity


Describe the poles of the kidney

Two poles: the superior pole is more rounded, while the inferior pole is more angled.


How many margins does the kidney have?

Two margins:
- Lateral margin
- Medial margin


Describe the shape of the lateral margin of the kidney

Entirely convex from the superior to the inferior pole


Describe the shape of the medial margin of the kidney

Convex superiorly and inferiorly but has a medial concave depression known as the hilum


What is the function of the hilum?

- Serves as an entry and exit passage for the renal vessels and nerves - Where the renal pelvis is found


What is the renal pelvis?

A funnel shaped origin of the ureter where all the urine is collected from the kidney


What does the renal pelvis become?

It converges to form a cylindrical tube known as the ureter


When is the ureter considered to begin?

Considered to begin where the vessels of the kidney exit


What is renal ectopia?

Renal ectopia refers to kidneys that is not located in its usual anatomical or physiological position


Where do the renal veins drain?

They drain into the inferior vena cava bilaterally


What does the renal artery do as it enters the hilum?

Near the renal hilum, the renal artery divides into an anterior and posterior division and these divide into segmental arteries while entering through the hilum


What does an organ that is retroperitoneum mean?

Only their anterior surface is covered by parietal peritoneum


What covers the external surface of the kidney?

Perinephric/Perirenal fat surrounds the capsule of the kidney and its vessels (extending into the renal sinus), which is enclosed by the Perirenal (renal/Gerota's) fascia and then again covered by paraphrenic/pararenal fat


What is the renal fascia made of?

The renal fascia is a fibrous membrane made of two layers:
- Anterior perirenal (renal) fascia
- Posterior perirenal (renal) fascia


What does the anterior renal fascia fuse with?

The anterior renal fascia fuses with the posterior parietal peritoneum


What does the posterior renal fascia fuse with?

The posterior renal fascia fuses with the fascia that covers the muscular layer of the posterior wall of the abdomen


What does the renal fascia fuse with superiorly ?

The renal fascia fuses superiorly with the fasciae that enwraps the inferior surface of the diaphragm.


What does the renal fascia do inferiorly?

The renal fascia opens inferiorly into the subperitoneal space of the pelvis


What do the renal fascia fuse with laterally?

The two fasciae fuse together and attach to the fascia of the transverse abdominal muscle (transversus abdominis)


What does the renal fascia do medially?

The fascia of one kidney is open and communicating with the fasciae of the
contralateral kidney.
- Splits into the prerenal fascia and postrenal fascia


What does the renal fascia do in each direction?

Fuses in every anatomical direction except medially and inferiorly
- Anteriorly: Fuses
- Posteriorly: Fuses
- Medially: Open
- Inferiorly: Open
- Laterally: Fuses
- Superiorly:Fuses


What is the purpose of the adipose tissue surrounding the kidney?

- Offers a safe fluid environment in which the kidney can slightly move to ascend or descend during respiration
- Allow for proper positioning of the kidney