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Flashcards in Kikisake-shi Deck (185):
1

What is 唎酒師

Kikisake-shi ( Sake Sommlier )

2

A Kikisake-shi will embody 7 characteristics:

Insightfulness, love for hospitality, knowledge of food and beverages, knowledge of how alcohol effects the body, expertise, continuous self training, business skills.
I = insightfulness
H = hospitality
K = knowledge of food and beverages
B = business skills
E = expertise
A = knowledge of alcoholic effects on body
T = continuous self-training

3

Fermentation is the process by which organic matter such as carbohydrates or proteins are decomposed by microorganisms ( ? ) and converted to a specific substance.

YEAST, Bacteria

4

Alcohol, cheese, yogurt, soy sauce, bread, miso and vinegar are examples of:

Fermented foods.

5

Alcoholic fermentation is the process of converting ( ? ) to alcohol

SUGAR

6

Fermentation is to convert ( ORGANIC MATTER ? ) to ( SOMETHING ? ) by ( MICROORGANISMS )

( SUGAR ) / ( ALCOHOL & CARBON DIOXIDE ) ( YEAST )

7

Alcoholic fermentation is divided into two types:

SINGLE AND MULTIPLE fermentation

8

Single fermentation must already contain ( ? ) to which yeast is added.

SUGAR such as fruit and molasses

9

Use of starch based materials such as barley and rice, and microorganisms to convert starches into sugar is ( ? ) fermentation.

MULTIPLE fermentation

10

Multiple fermentation has how many types ( ? ) are styles and what are those ( ? )

2 TYPES = SINGLE LINE FERMENTATION & MULTIPLE PARALLEL FERMENTATION

11

BEER IS MADE BY ( ? )

SINGLE LINE FERMENTATION

12

SAKE is MADE BY

MULTIPLE PARALLEL FERMENTATION

13

米麹 is

KOMEKOJI

14

醸造酒 is

JOZOSHU or FERMENTED BEVERAGES

15

Earliest examples of fermented beverages date back to ancient ( ? ) about ( ? ) years ago and were wine like beverages.

EGYPT / 5000

16

蒸溜酒 is

JORYUSHU or DISTILLED SPIRITS / LIQUOR

17

混成酒 is

(こんせいしゅ/ KONSEISHU) MIXED LIQUER

18

Sake is made from

WATER, RICE AND RICE KOJI

19

特定名称酒 is

( Tokutei meisho-shu) is what's known as "special designation" sake

20

純米酒 is

JUMAISHU

21

吟醸酒 is

GINJOSHU

22

SHOCHU is a distilled liquor or spirit and is divided into two catagories

Kōrui shōchū 甲類焼酎 / Otsurui shōchū 乙類焼酎 ( 乙類 may also refer to as 本格焼酎 honkaku shōchū

23

本格焼酎 Honkaku Shōchū is produced from

sweet potatoes / barley / rice / or black sugar.

24

shochu spirits are thought originate to Japan from ( ? ) and made their way into Japan from ( ? ) and became well established in ( ? )

INDOCHINA / OKINAWA / KYUSHU

25

First alcoholic beverage in Japan was made from wild grapes during the ( ? ) historical period. This was discovered in ( ? ) prefecture at ( ? ).

JOMON ( 縄文) / NAGANO ( 長野県 ) / IDOJIRIISEKI (井戸尻遺跡)

26

Sake originated with rice introduction during the ( ? ) historical period of Japan about 5th ~ 3rd century CE.

YAYOI ( 弥生 )

27

The first brew of Sake was known as ( ? ) was for the GODs for a good harvest of rice and was from the ( ? ) historical periods.

DOBUROKU / KOFUN and ASUKA

28

USING 麹 to produce SAKE was introduced in the ( ? ) historical period from ( ? )

NARA / CHINA

29

The 3rd century CHINESE historical text ( ? ) refers to SAKE consumption in Japan.

魏志倭人伝 / GISHIWAJINDEN

30

The first SAKE was produced by chewing material in the mouth called ( ? ) A book titled ( ? ) describes KAGOSHIMA natural features, climate and products which includes 嚙みノ酒 references.

KUCHIKAMENOSAKE ( 口嚙みノ酒 ) OHSUMIKOKU FUDOKI ( )

31

Two historically important works to Japan that contain references to Sake are;

KOJIKI ( 古事記 ) NIHONSHOKI ( 日本書紀 )

32

A popular Sake produced by Buddhist Monks during the Heian period.

SOUBOSHU ( 僧坊酒 )

33

During the Heian period a modern form known as ( ? ) of Sake was created. Later ( ? ) was established made from polished KAKEMAI and unpolished rice KOJIMAI.

MOROHAKU ( 諸白 ) / KATAHAKU ( 片白 )

34

During the ( ? ) period Sake production becomes commercialized. Sake becomes so popular and a social concern that legislation leads to prohibition in ( ? ) and SAKE growth is slowed.

KAMAKURA / 1252

35

Prohibition ends during the ( ? ) period, production flourished and taxation begins leading to an important resource for government.

MUROMACHI

36

In 1425 ( ? ) breweries existed in Kyoto.

342

37

The practice of making Sake during the winter months is known as

KANZUKURI ( 寒造り )

38

Pasteurization by low temperature heating between 50-60 degrees is

HI-IRE ( 火入れ )

39

A process of 3 step brewing was established during the EDO period.

SANDANJIKOMI ( 三段仕込み )

40

A lead or chief brewer of Sake in a brewery is known as a ?

TOJI (杜氏)

41

Second in charge of brewing crew is known as a

KASHIRA (頭)

42

The brewing staff of a brewery are known as

KURABITO (蔵人)

43

A ( ? ) oversees malt production in a brewery.

DAISHI ( 大師 )

44

Brewing Schools are known as ?

TOJI GUILDS

45

3 main TOJI brewing guilds

NANBU TOJI ( IWATE - KEN ) / ECHIGO TOJI ( NIIGATA - KEN ) / TANBA TOJI ( HYOGO - KEN )

46

Prior to bacteria measuring and management Toji would use the practice of ( ? ) as an additive to MOROMI to prevent batch spoilage.

Hashira SHOCHU ( 柱焼酎)

47

SumiSake or Seishu become common in the ( ? ) period.

EDO

48

Modern SumiSake or Seishu filtering method is

ACTIVATED CARBON FILTRATION

49

During the EDO period a special water was found in the
( ? ) region known as ( ? )

NADA / MIYAMIZU ( 宮水 SHRINE WATER )

50

5 reasons for the rise of brewing dominance in the NADA region?

1. CLEAN HIGH QUALITY WATER
2. HIGH QUALITY RICE PRODUCTION
3. STRONG/FAST RIVER CURRENTS GOOD FOR RICE POLISHING
4. DISTINGUISHED TOJI GROUP FORMED
5. GOOD PORT for MASS TRANSIT

51

Heavy TAXATION was leveraged on SAKE breweries during the ( ? ) modern periods.

MEIJI AND TAISHO

52

Established in the MEIJI/TAISHO period, the operation know as NBES ( ? ) caused exponential growth in SAKE.

NATIONAL BREWING EXPERIMENT STATION

53

What 2 technology advances led to the production of higher quality Sake like GINJOSHU?

ENAMEL TANKS and VERTICAL RICE POLISHING MACHINES.

54

Overseas export of Sake began in the ( ? ) period to what markets?

HEISEI / SOUTHEAST ASIA / RUSSIA / EUROPE

55

In the year, ( ? ) Sake made its official international debut at the ( ? ) Exposition and was called ( ? )

1872 / VIENNA INTERNATIONAL/ NIHONSHU

56

In the year ( ? ) a BIG BOTTLE for SAKE retailers was created it is called a ( ? ) and is how many liters?

1901 / ISSHOBIN / 1.8 L

57

What benefits did enamel tank technology bring to Sake making?

Did not affect Sake during storage and did not impact tastes like cedar casks.

58

In the year ( ? ), the ( ? ) taxation system was established taxing first class Sake like GINJOSHU higher than second class Sake.

1943 / KUBETSU-SEIDO ( 級別制度)

59

Year round Sake production became possible in ( ? )

1961

60

What are the three classes of Sake that arose in 1962?

TOKKYUU / IKKYUU / NIKYUU

61

In 1989 the classification system was restructured to two classes, (? ), then later abolished.

IKKYUU / NIKYUU

62

In 1992 Sake classification became based on ?

ALCOHOL CONTENT

63

In 2006, the process of ( ) established during the Second World War due to rice and Sake shortage was prohibited.

SANBAI ZOJOSHU ( 三倍? )

64

Sake is produced in ( ? ) areas outside Japan.

10; United States ( incl Hawaii ), Korea, China, Brazil, Vietnam, Thailand, Australia, Norway, Canada, Taiwan

65

There are ( ? ) base kinds of rice plants known as

2 / African and Asian

66

There are ( ? ) strains of the Asian rice plant;

3 / Japonica, Indica, Javanica

67

Japanonica Rice strain is divided into ( ? ) categories

2 / Uruchimai ( 粳米 ) and Mochigome ( 餅米 )

68

What Japonica rice strain is used for making Sake?

Uruchimai

69

More than 90% of rice consumed in Japan is ( ? ) and is ordinary cooking rice.

Uruchimai

70

千粒重 Senryuju is a term used to describe

the SIZE of RICE

71

The white opaque part of the center of a rice grain is the

SHINPAKU ( 心白 )

72

Koji mold works best with rice that has a good amount of ( ? ) at the center?

SHINPAKU ( 心白 )

73

The two cultivation methods for rice are? Japonica rice is grown ?

WET and DRY / WET

74

Rice suited for Sake brewing is known as ( ? ) which has approximately ( ? ) varieties and makes up ( ? ) of total production in Japan.

SHUZOKOTEKIMAI ( 酒造 ) / 100 / 1%

75

Criteria for SHUZOKOTEKIMAI

1. SENRYUJU should be about 25-30G
2. Has SHINPAKU
3. Lower levels of LIPIDS and PROTIEN
4. HIGH WATER ABSORBTION RATE
5. After steaming should be hard on the outside and soft on the inside.

76

Cultivation conditions for ShuzoKotekimai are

1. Wide variation between day and night.
2. Rich Soil
3. Good spacing of plants
4. Farming skills

77

Most famous of the SHUZOKOTEKIMAI is

YamadaNishiki ( 山田錦 )

78

Yamadanishki areas / characteristics

HYOGO / FUKUOKA / OKAYAMA / SAGA / KUMAMOTO
has largest cultivation area. Easy to polish and led to the DAIGINJO boom.

79

Gohyakumangoku areas / characteristics

best in HOKURIKU or north NIGATA, FUKUI, TOYAMA, ISHIKAWA. Second largest cultivation area, has large SHINPAKU but difficult to polish and leads to light simple Sake.

80

Miyamanishiki areas / characteristics

NAGANO and other TOHOKU regions AKITA, YAMAGATA, IWATE, MIYAGI. COLD TOLERANT REFRESHING SHARP TEXTURE.

81

Hattan NISHIKI grows best

HIROSHIMA, leads to a refreshing light flavor. Normal dived into 2 classes.

82

OMACHI grows best

OKAYAMA / difficult to cultivate and brew with but leads to a Deep SAKE

83

HANAFUBUKI grows best

AOMORI

84

Kinmon NISHIKI grows best

NAGANO

85

DEWASANSAN grows best

YAMAGATA

86

KOSHITANREI

NIIGATA

87

GINPU

HOKKAIDO

88

Water is what % of Sake?

80

89

Water used in SAKE brewing is ( ? ) times of rice WEIGHT.

50

90

3 BENEFICIAL WATER ELEMENTS to benefit SHUBO production

Potassium / Phosphoric ACID / MAGNESIUM

91

DETRIMENTAL ELEMENTS

IRON / MANGANESE

92

The most renowned water for brewing is

NADA / KOBE-SHI HYOGO-KEN

93

TOP LOCATIONS FOR WATER SOURCES ARE

1. KOBE
2. FUSHIMI
3. SHIZUOKA

94

MOST FAMOUS WATER TYPES

1. MIYAMIZU
2. GOKOSUI
3.FUKURYUSUI

95

Who discovered MIYAMIZU and what period?

TAZAEMON YAMAMURA / EDO

96

MIYAMIZU contains very little

IRON

97

GOKUSUI was discovered when and where?

HEIAN / GOKOGU SHRINE FUSHIMI ( KYOTO )

98

Kyoto FUSHIMI is know for a ( ? ) characteristic SAKE, while Kobe NADA is know for ( ? )

SWEET SOFT FEMININE / DRY HARD MASCULINE

99

FUKURYUSUI is from and is know to be most suitable for

Mt. FUJI / JAPANESE PALATES crisp and soft mouth feel.

100

硬水 is

KOHSUI / HARD WATER

101

軟水 is

NANSUI / SOFT WATER

102

The main microorganisms that affect SAKE flavor are

KOJI MOLD, YEAST and LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

103

LACTIC ACID is a component of ( ? ) and ferment sugar

KIMOTO-KEI SHUBO ( 生酛系酒母)

104

麹菌 is a mold and induces the ( ? ) of starch in rice.

KOJI KIN / SACCHARIFICATION

105

麹米 is steamed rice used for making ( ? )

米麹  ( RICE KOJI )

106

米麹 is steamed rice on which ( ? ) has been cultivated.

麹菌 ( KOJIKIN)

107

How many types of 麹菌 are used in Japan and what are they? Which one is main to Sake production?

3
1. KI (YELLOW ) KOJI for SAKE
2. KURO ( BLACK ) KOJI for AWAMORI
3. SHIRO ( WHITE ) KOJI for SHOCHU

108

Yellow "KI" KOJI used in Sake production scientific name is

ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE

109

YEAST converts SUGAR to

ALCOHOL

110

LATIC ACID protects

YEAST

111

精米 is

SEIMAI

112

精米歩合 is

SEIMAI BUAI

113

The degree to which RICE is POLISHED

精米歩合 SEIMAI BUAI

114

精米機 is

SEIMAIKI

115

SEIMAI KI is

Vertical Polishing Machines

116

金剛ロール are

Large GRIND STONES inside vertical polishing machines

117

枯らし is the practice of

( KARASHI ) storing rice for two to three weeks after polishing.

118

洗米 is

( SENMAI ) or rice washing to remove NUKA ( 糠 ) rice bran and rice crumbs.

119

浸漬 is

( SHINSEKI )SOAKING prior to steaming process.

120

蒸し is

( MUSHI ) rice steaming

121

甑 is

( KOSHIKI ) the steaming vat

122

甑穴 is

( KOSHIKI ANA ) hole in the bottom of steamer to release steam up for the steaming process

123

Once rice is steamed it is kneaded into a small cake to test condition of the steamed rice, this is called

HINERIMOCHI ( ひねり餅 )

124

酒母 and もと are

Yeast fermentation starter

125

After rice is steamed it is separated into two groups to make

KAKEMAI and KOJIMAI

126

KOJIMAI is used for making, ( ? ) and 20 % is used.

RICE KOJI

127

KAKEMAI is used for making, ( ? ) and 80% is used.

MOROMI

128

6 % of steamed rice is used to make the ( ? ) and is called the ( ? )

酒母 SHUBO / 酒母用米 SHUBOYOMAI

129

( ? ) is the process of making rice koji.

製麹 ( SEIGIKU )

130

( ? ) from KOJI MOLD decompose starches to create ( ? ) this is called SACCHARIFICATION.

ENZYMES / GLUCOSE

131

KOJI is made in a special room called a

麹室  ( KOJIMURO )

132

How many hours to create KOJI?

48

133

The process of carrying the rice to the KOJIMURO is

HIKKIKOMI

134

The process of sprinkling KOJI MOLD is

TOKOMOMI

135

The process of LUMP breaking and mixing in the KOJI is

KIRIKAESHI

136

The process of switching the KOJI into a smaller box for temp control is

MORI

137

The process of spreading the KOJI to average out temperature is

NAKASHIGOTO

138

The process to add ditches to allow water to further evaporate is called

SHIMAISHIGOTO

139

The process of moving KOJI out of the MURO to a cooler location to stop MOLD cultivation is

DEKOJI

140

TWO types of RICE KOJI

SOUHAZEGATA and TSUKIHAZEGATA

141

The way mold propagates is called

HAZE ( 破精 )

142

This KOJI leads to a FULL BODY SAKE

SOUHAZEGATA

143

This KOJI leads to a LIGHT / SMOOTH SAKE with fragrance.

TSUKIHAZEGATA

144

There are ( ? ) methods for making yeast starter? Those methods are

2 / KIMOTOKEI SHUBO and SOKUJOUKEI SHUBO

145

KIMOTOKEI SHUBO has two methods

Kimoto jikomi / Yamahai jikomi

146

Early methods of Kimoto JIKOMI leveraged a laborious known as

YAMAOROSHI

147

In the year 190?, scientist found Yamamorshi process was unnecessary and the elimination of this labor is know as

YAMAOROSHI HAISHI or YAMAHAI

148

In the year 19??, the NIBR found fast developing SHUBO or MOTO was possible by adding

LIQUID LATIC ACID

149

KIMOTO and YAMAHAI have a ( ? ) flavor and more depth and ( ? ) than SOKUJOKEI SHUBO

RICH / AROMA

150

SOKUJOKEI SHUBO takes less ( ? ) and has a mild clean ( ? ) over KIMOTO

TIME / FLAVOR

151

SOKUJOKEI SHUBO holds about ( ? ) % of the market

90

152

KIMOTOKEI SHUBO holds about ( ? ) % of the market

10

153

The most common used YEAST today in Sake brewing is

KYOKAI No. 7 ( MASUMI YEAST ) /

154

The most common used YEAST used for GINJO is

KYOKAI No. 9 ( KUMAMOTO YEAST )

155

KYOKAI No. 7 ( MASUMI YEAST ) was created by

Miyasaka Brewing in Nagano

156

KYOKAI No. 9 ( KUMAMOTO YEAST ) was created by

Institute for Kumamoto Brewing

157

MOROMI contains

SHUBO, STEAMED RICE ( KAKEMAI ), WATER and RICE KOJI.

158

SANDANJIKOMI is a ( ? ) step brewing process.

3

159

SANDANJIKOMI is conduct over ( ? ) days to prevent the ( ? ) environment from being diluted.

4 / ACIDIC

160

In SANDANJIKOMI Day 1 is

HATSUZOE about 20% of the mix total steamed rice, rice Koji and water are added.

161

In SANDANJIKOMI Day 2 is

ODORI, Noting added YEAST PROPAGATES

162

In SANDANJIKOMI Day 3 is

NAKAZOE about 30% more of the mix total steamed rice, rice Koji and water are added.

163

In SANDANJIKOMI Day 4 is

TOMEZOE the remaining 44% of the mix total steamed rice, rice Koji and water are added.

164

The MOROMI BATCH on DAY 5 begins ( ? ) fermentation and this last from ( ? - ? ) weeks.

MULTIPLE PARALLEL / 2 - 4

165

When the Sake has fully fermented and is ready for

JOZO / Pressing.

166

Pressing is divided into 3 sub batches

ARABISHIRI / NAKADORI / NAKAGUMI

167

The first free flowing Sake from a pressing without applying pressure to cotton bags in a FUNE is

ARABISHIRI

168

The second and third batches from a pressing are

NAKADORI and NAKAGUMI

169

FUKURO TSURI is ( ? ) method.

hanging bag to drip

170

FUKURO TSURI produces

SHIZUKU ZAKE

171

Racking the pressed Sake in a tank for about ( ? ) days is to remove ( ? ) or sediments.

10 / ORI ( ORIBIKI )

172

ROKA is

FILTERING

173

MUROKA is

NONFILTERED

174

HI IRE is

Pasteurization

175

Pasteurization removes

enzymes and proteins

176

Pasteurization is done how many times and when?

2 / once after filtering and once before bottling.

177

Storage in a Tank is

CHOZO

178

Blending Sakes from several tanks to improve product is

CHOUGO

179

Adding Water to Sake to adjust alcohol to ( ? ) % is called

15 / WARIMIZU

180

Sake that has not be diluted is know as

GENSHU

181

GENSHU alcohol can reach

18%

182

JUKUSEI is

bottle aged sake

183

Koshu is

aged sake

184

choki jukuseishu is

matured Sake

185

When tasting Sake what 3 elements for the basis for evaluation?

APPEARANCE / AROMA / FLAVOR