Flashcards in Kikisake-shi Deck (185):
What is 唎酒師
Kikisake-shi ( Sake Sommlier )
A Kikisake-shi will embody 7 characteristics:
Insightfulness, love for hospitality, knowledge of food and beverages, knowledge of how alcohol effects the body, expertise, continuous self training, business skills.
I = insightfulness
H = hospitality
K = knowledge of food and beverages
B = business skills
E = expertise
A = knowledge of alcoholic effects on body
T = continuous self-training
Fermentation is the process by which organic matter such as carbohydrates or proteins are decomposed by microorganisms ( ? ) and converted to a specific substance.
Alcohol, cheese, yogurt, soy sauce, bread, miso and vinegar are examples of:
Alcoholic fermentation is the process of converting ( ? ) to alcohol
Fermentation is to convert ( ORGANIC MATTER ? ) to ( SOMETHING ? ) by ( MICROORGANISMS )
( SUGAR ) / ( ALCOHOL & CARBON DIOXIDE ) ( YEAST )
Alcoholic fermentation is divided into two types:
SINGLE AND MULTIPLE fermentation
Single fermentation must already contain ( ? ) to which yeast is added.
SUGAR such as fruit and molasses
Use of starch based materials such as barley and rice, and microorganisms to convert starches into sugar is ( ? ) fermentation.
Multiple fermentation has how many types ( ? ) are styles and what are those ( ? )
2 TYPES = SINGLE LINE FERMENTATION & MULTIPLE PARALLEL FERMENTATION
BEER IS MADE BY ( ? )
SINGLE LINE FERMENTATION
SAKE is MADE BY
MULTIPLE PARALLEL FERMENTATION
JOZOSHU or FERMENTED BEVERAGES
Earliest examples of fermented beverages date back to ancient ( ? ) about ( ? ) years ago and were wine like beverages.
EGYPT / 5000
JORYUSHU or DISTILLED SPIRITS / LIQUOR
(こんせいしゅ/ KONSEISHU) MIXED LIQUER
Sake is made from
WATER, RICE AND RICE KOJI
( Tokutei meisho-shu) is what's known as "special designation" sake
SHOCHU is a distilled liquor or spirit and is divided into two catagories
Kōrui shōchū 甲類焼酎 / Otsurui shōchū 乙類焼酎 ( 乙類 may also refer to as 本格焼酎 honkaku shōchū
本格焼酎 Honkaku Shōchū is produced from
sweet potatoes / barley / rice / or black sugar.
shochu spirits are thought originate to Japan from ( ? ) and made their way into Japan from ( ? ) and became well established in ( ? )
INDOCHINA / OKINAWA / KYUSHU
First alcoholic beverage in Japan was made from wild grapes during the ( ? ) historical period. This was discovered in ( ? ) prefecture at ( ? ).
JOMON ( 縄文) / NAGANO ( 長野県 ) / IDOJIRIISEKI (井戸尻遺跡)
Sake originated with rice introduction during the ( ? ) historical period of Japan about 5th ~ 3rd century CE.
YAYOI ( 弥生 )
The first brew of Sake was known as ( ? ) was for the GODs for a good harvest of rice and was from the ( ? ) historical periods.
DOBUROKU / KOFUN and ASUKA
USING 麹 to produce SAKE was introduced in the ( ? ) historical period from ( ? )
NARA / CHINA
The 3rd century CHINESE historical text ( ? ) refers to SAKE consumption in Japan.
魏志倭人伝 / GISHIWAJINDEN
The first SAKE was produced by chewing material in the mouth called ( ? ) A book titled ( ? ) describes KAGOSHIMA natural features, climate and products which includes 嚙みノ酒 references.
KUCHIKAMENOSAKE ( 口嚙みノ酒 ) OHSUMIKOKU FUDOKI ( )
Two historically important works to Japan that contain references to Sake are;
KOJIKI ( 古事記 ) NIHONSHOKI ( 日本書紀 )
A popular Sake produced by Buddhist Monks during the Heian period.
SOUBOSHU ( 僧坊酒 )
During the Heian period a modern form known as ( ? ) of Sake was created. Later ( ? ) was established made from polished KAKEMAI and unpolished rice KOJIMAI.
MOROHAKU ( 諸白 ) / KATAHAKU ( 片白 )
During the ( ? ) period Sake production becomes commercialized. Sake becomes so popular and a social concern that legislation leads to prohibition in ( ? ) and SAKE growth is slowed.
KAMAKURA / 1252
Prohibition ends during the ( ? ) period, production flourished and taxation begins leading to an important resource for government.
In 1425 ( ? ) breweries existed in Kyoto.
The practice of making Sake during the winter months is known as
KANZUKURI ( 寒造り )
Pasteurization by low temperature heating between 50-60 degrees is
HI-IRE ( 火入れ )
A process of 3 step brewing was established during the EDO period.
SANDANJIKOMI ( 三段仕込み )
A lead or chief brewer of Sake in a brewery is known as a ?
Second in charge of brewing crew is known as a
The brewing staff of a brewery are known as
A ( ? ) oversees malt production in a brewery.
DAISHI ( 大師 )
Brewing Schools are known as ?
3 main TOJI brewing guilds
NANBU TOJI ( IWATE - KEN ) / ECHIGO TOJI ( NIIGATA - KEN ) / TANBA TOJI ( HYOGO - KEN )
Prior to bacteria measuring and management Toji would use the practice of ( ? ) as an additive to MOROMI to prevent batch spoilage.
Hashira SHOCHU ( 柱焼酎）
SumiSake or Seishu become common in the ( ? ) period.
Modern SumiSake or Seishu filtering method is
ACTIVATED CARBON FILTRATION
During the EDO period a special water was found in the
( ? ) region known as ( ? )
NADA / MIYAMIZU ( 宮水 SHRINE WATER )
5 reasons for the rise of brewing dominance in the NADA region?
1. CLEAN HIGH QUALITY WATER
2. HIGH QUALITY RICE PRODUCTION
3. STRONG/FAST RIVER CURRENTS GOOD FOR RICE POLISHING
4. DISTINGUISHED TOJI GROUP FORMED
5. GOOD PORT for MASS TRANSIT
Heavy TAXATION was leveraged on SAKE breweries during the ( ? ) modern periods.
MEIJI AND TAISHO
Established in the MEIJI/TAISHO period, the operation know as NBES ( ? ) caused exponential growth in SAKE.
NATIONAL BREWING EXPERIMENT STATION
What 2 technology advances led to the production of higher quality Sake like GINJOSHU?
ENAMEL TANKS and VERTICAL RICE POLISHING MACHINES.
Overseas export of Sake began in the ( ? ) period to what markets?
HEISEI / SOUTHEAST ASIA / RUSSIA / EUROPE
In the year, ( ? ) Sake made its official international debut at the ( ? ) Exposition and was called ( ? )
1872 / VIENNA INTERNATIONAL/ NIHONSHU
In the year ( ? ) a BIG BOTTLE for SAKE retailers was created it is called a ( ? ) and is how many liters?
1901 / ISSHOBIN / 1.8 L
What benefits did enamel tank technology bring to Sake making?
Did not affect Sake during storage and did not impact tastes like cedar casks.
In the year ( ? ), the ( ? ) taxation system was established taxing first class Sake like GINJOSHU higher than second class Sake.
1943 / KUBETSU-SEIDO ( 級別制度）
Year round Sake production became possible in ( ? )
What are the three classes of Sake that arose in 1962?
TOKKYUU / IKKYUU / NIKYUU
In 1989 the classification system was restructured to two classes, (? ), then later abolished.
IKKYUU / NIKYUU
In 1992 Sake classification became based on ?
In 2006, the process of ( ) established during the Second World War due to rice and Sake shortage was prohibited.
SANBAI ZOJOSHU ( 三倍？ )
Sake is produced in ( ? ) areas outside Japan.
10; United States ( incl Hawaii ), Korea, China, Brazil, Vietnam, Thailand, Australia, Norway, Canada, Taiwan
There are ( ? ) base kinds of rice plants known as
2 / African and Asian
There are ( ? ) strains of the Asian rice plant;
3 / Japonica, Indica, Javanica
Japanonica Rice strain is divided into ( ? ) categories
2 / Uruchimai ( 粳米 ) and Mochigome ( 餅米 )
What Japonica rice strain is used for making Sake?
More than 90% of rice consumed in Japan is ( ? ) and is ordinary cooking rice.
千粒重 Senryuju is a term used to describe
the SIZE of RICE
The white opaque part of the center of a rice grain is the
SHINPAKU ( 心白 )
Koji mold works best with rice that has a good amount of ( ? ) at the center?
SHINPAKU ( 心白 )
The two cultivation methods for rice are? Japonica rice is grown ?
WET and DRY / WET
Rice suited for Sake brewing is known as ( ? ) which has approximately ( ? ) varieties and makes up ( ? ) of total production in Japan.
SHUZOKOTEKIMAI ( 酒造 ) / 100 / 1%
Criteria for SHUZOKOTEKIMAI
1. SENRYUJU should be about 25-30G
2. Has SHINPAKU
3. Lower levels of LIPIDS and PROTIEN
4. HIGH WATER ABSORBTION RATE
5. After steaming should be hard on the outside and soft on the inside.
Cultivation conditions for ShuzoKotekimai are
1. Wide variation between day and night.
2. Rich Soil
3. Good spacing of plants
4. Farming skills
Most famous of the SHUZOKOTEKIMAI is
YamadaNishiki ( 山田錦 )
Yamadanishki areas / characteristics
HYOGO / FUKUOKA / OKAYAMA / SAGA / KUMAMOTO
has largest cultivation area. Easy to polish and led to the DAIGINJO boom.
Gohyakumangoku areas / characteristics
best in HOKURIKU or north NIGATA, FUKUI, TOYAMA, ISHIKAWA. Second largest cultivation area, has large SHINPAKU but difficult to polish and leads to light simple Sake.
Miyamanishiki areas / characteristics
NAGANO and other TOHOKU regions AKITA, YAMAGATA, IWATE, MIYAGI. COLD TOLERANT REFRESHING SHARP TEXTURE.
Hattan NISHIKI grows best
HIROSHIMA, leads to a refreshing light flavor. Normal dived into 2 classes.
OMACHI grows best
OKAYAMA / difficult to cultivate and brew with but leads to a Deep SAKE
HANAFUBUKI grows best
Kinmon NISHIKI grows best
DEWASANSAN grows best
Water is what % of Sake?
Water used in SAKE brewing is ( ? ) times of rice WEIGHT.
3 BENEFICIAL WATER ELEMENTS to benefit SHUBO production
Potassium / Phosphoric ACID / MAGNESIUM
IRON / MANGANESE
The most renowned water for brewing is
NADA / KOBE-SHI HYOGO-KEN
TOP LOCATIONS FOR WATER SOURCES ARE
MOST FAMOUS WATER TYPES
Who discovered MIYAMIZU and what period?
TAZAEMON YAMAMURA / EDO
MIYAMIZU contains very little
GOKUSUI was discovered when and where?
HEIAN / GOKOGU SHRINE FUSHIMI ( KYOTO )
Kyoto FUSHIMI is know for a ( ? ) characteristic SAKE, while Kobe NADA is know for ( ? )
SWEET SOFT FEMININE / DRY HARD MASCULINE
FUKURYUSUI is from and is know to be most suitable for
Mt. FUJI / JAPANESE PALATES crisp and soft mouth feel.
KOHSUI / HARD WATER
NANSUI / SOFT WATER
The main microorganisms that affect SAKE flavor are
KOJI MOLD, YEAST and LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
LACTIC ACID is a component of ( ? ) and ferment sugar
KIMOTO-KEI SHUBO ( 生酛系酒母)
麹菌 is a mold and induces the ( ? ) of starch in rice.
KOJI KIN / SACCHARIFICATION
麹米 is steamed rice used for making ( ? )
米麹 ( RICE KOJI )
米麹 is steamed rice on which ( ? ) has been cultivated.
麹菌 ( KOJIKIN)
How many types of 麹菌 are used in Japan and what are they? Which one is main to Sake production?
1. KI (YELLOW ) KOJI for SAKE
2. KURO ( BLACK ) KOJI for AWAMORI
3. SHIRO ( WHITE ) KOJI for SHOCHU
Yellow "KI" KOJI used in Sake production scientific name is
YEAST converts SUGAR to
LATIC ACID protects
The degree to which RICE is POLISHED
精米歩合 SEIMAI BUAI
SEIMAI KI is
Vertical Polishing Machines
Large GRIND STONES inside vertical polishing machines
枯らし is the practice of
( KARASHI ) storing rice for two to three weeks after polishing.
( SENMAI ) or rice washing to remove NUKA ( 糠 ) rice bran and rice crumbs.
( SHINSEKI )SOAKING prior to steaming process.
( MUSHI ) rice steaming
( KOSHIKI ) the steaming vat
( KOSHIKI ANA ) hole in the bottom of steamer to release steam up for the steaming process
Once rice is steamed it is kneaded into a small cake to test condition of the steamed rice, this is called
HINERIMOCHI ( ひねり餅 )
酒母 and もと are
Yeast fermentation starter
After rice is steamed it is separated into two groups to make
KAKEMAI and KOJIMAI
KOJIMAI is used for making, ( ? ) and 20 % is used.
KAKEMAI is used for making, ( ? ) and 80% is used.
6 % of steamed rice is used to make the ( ? ) and is called the ( ? )
酒母 SHUBO / 酒母用米 SHUBOYOMAI
( ? ) is the process of making rice koji.
製麹 ( SEIGIKU )
( ? ) from KOJI MOLD decompose starches to create ( ? ) this is called SACCHARIFICATION.
ENZYMES / GLUCOSE
KOJI is made in a special room called a
麹室 ( KOJIMURO )
How many hours to create KOJI?
The process of carrying the rice to the KOJIMURO is
The process of sprinkling KOJI MOLD is
The process of LUMP breaking and mixing in the KOJI is
The process of switching the KOJI into a smaller box for temp control is
The process of spreading the KOJI to average out temperature is
The process to add ditches to allow water to further evaporate is called
The process of moving KOJI out of the MURO to a cooler location to stop MOLD cultivation is
TWO types of RICE KOJI
SOUHAZEGATA and TSUKIHAZEGATA
The way mold propagates is called
HAZE ( 破精 ）
This KOJI leads to a FULL BODY SAKE
This KOJI leads to a LIGHT / SMOOTH SAKE with fragrance.
There are ( ? ) methods for making yeast starter? Those methods are
2 / KIMOTOKEI SHUBO and SOKUJOUKEI SHUBO
KIMOTOKEI SHUBO has two methods
Kimoto jikomi / Yamahai jikomi
Early methods of Kimoto JIKOMI leveraged a laborious known as
In the year 190?, scientist found Yamamorshi process was unnecessary and the elimination of this labor is know as
YAMAOROSHI HAISHI or YAMAHAI
In the year 19??, the NIBR found fast developing SHUBO or MOTO was possible by adding
LIQUID LATIC ACID
KIMOTO and YAMAHAI have a ( ? ) flavor and more depth and ( ? ) than SOKUJOKEI SHUBO
RICH / AROMA
SOKUJOKEI SHUBO takes less ( ? ) and has a mild clean ( ? ) over KIMOTO
TIME / FLAVOR
SOKUJOKEI SHUBO holds about ( ? ) % of the market
KIMOTOKEI SHUBO holds about ( ? ) % of the market
The most common used YEAST today in Sake brewing is
KYOKAI No. 7 ( MASUMI YEAST ) /
The most common used YEAST used for GINJO is
KYOKAI No. 9 ( KUMAMOTO YEAST )
KYOKAI No. 7 ( MASUMI YEAST ) was created by
Miyasaka Brewing in Nagano
KYOKAI No. 9 ( KUMAMOTO YEAST ) was created by
Institute for Kumamoto Brewing
SHUBO, STEAMED RICE ( KAKEMAI ), WATER and RICE KOJI.
SANDANJIKOMI is a ( ? ) step brewing process.
SANDANJIKOMI is conduct over ( ? ) days to prevent the ( ? ) environment from being diluted.
4 / ACIDIC
In SANDANJIKOMI Day 1 is
HATSUZOE about 20% of the mix total steamed rice, rice Koji and water are added.
In SANDANJIKOMI Day 2 is
ODORI, Noting added YEAST PROPAGATES
In SANDANJIKOMI Day 3 is
NAKAZOE about 30% more of the mix total steamed rice, rice Koji and water are added.
In SANDANJIKOMI Day 4 is
TOMEZOE the remaining 44% of the mix total steamed rice, rice Koji and water are added.
The MOROMI BATCH on DAY 5 begins ( ? ) fermentation and this last from ( ? - ? ) weeks.
MULTIPLE PARALLEL / 2 - 4
When the Sake has fully fermented and is ready for
JOZO / Pressing.
Pressing is divided into 3 sub batches
ARABISHIRI / NAKADORI / NAKAGUMI
The first free flowing Sake from a pressing without applying pressure to cotton bags in a FUNE is
The second and third batches from a pressing are
NAKADORI and NAKAGUMI
FUKURO TSURI is ( ? ) method.
hanging bag to drip
FUKURO TSURI produces
Racking the pressed Sake in a tank for about ( ? ) days is to remove ( ? ) or sediments.
10 / ORI ( ORIBIKI )
HI IRE is
enzymes and proteins
Pasteurization is done how many times and when?
2 / once after filtering and once before bottling.
Storage in a Tank is
Blending Sakes from several tanks to improve product is
Adding Water to Sake to adjust alcohol to ( ? ) % is called
15 / WARIMIZU
Sake that has not be diluted is know as
GENSHU alcohol can reach
bottle aged sake
choki jukuseishu is