Kirzner Terminology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kirzner Terminology Deck (200):
1

Iambic hexameter, a common form in French poetry but relatively rare in English poetry

Alexandrine

2

Story with two parallel and consistent levels of meaning, one literal and one figurative, in which the figurative level offer's a moral or political lesson; John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress and Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown"

Allegory

3

Has only one meaning (for instance, it may represent good or evil), as opposed to a symbol, which may suggest a complex network of meanings

Allegorical figure

4

The system of ideas that conveys the allegory's message

Allegorical framework

5

Repetition of initial sounds in a series of words

Alliteration

6

Reference, often to literature, history, mythology, or the Bible, that is unacknowledged in the text but that the author expects the reader to recognize

Allusion

7

International device in which authors invoke a number of possible meanings of a word or grammatical structure by leaving unclear the meaning they intend .

Ambiguity

8

Has three syllables, two unstressed and the third stressed

Anapest

9

Character who is in conflict with or opposition to the protagonist; the villain . Sometimes a force or situation rather than a person .

Antagonist

10

Modern character who possesses the opposite attributes of a hero. Rather than being dignified and powerful, tends to be passive and ineffectual. Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman

Antihero

11

Figure of speech in which an absent character or personified force or object is addressed directly, as if it were present or could comprehend

Apostrophe

12

Image or symbol that is so common or significant to a culture that it seems to have a universal importance .

Archetype

13

Stage in which the actors are surrounded by the audience; also called theater in round .

Arena stage

14

Brief comment spoken by the actor to the audience and assumed not to be heard by other characters

Aside

15

Reposition of vowel sounds in a series of words: "creep three feet"

Assonance

16

Tone or mood of a literary work, often established by the setting and the language . The emotional aura that determines readers expectations about a work .

Atmosphere

17

Poem about morning usually celebrating the dawn

Aubade

18

Narrative poem, rooted in oral tradition, usually arranged in quatrains rhyming abcb and containing a refrain

Ballad

19

Alternates lines of eight and six syllables . Typically only the second and fourth lines rhyme

Ballad stanza

20

Short tale usually including a moral, in which animals assume human characteristics

Beast fable

21

Comedy that relies on the morbid and absurd . Often are so satiric that they become ironic and tragic

Black comedy

22

Lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter in no particular stanzaic form .

Blank verse

23

Decisions about how characters move and where they stand on stage in a dramatic production

Blocking

24

Harsh or unpleasant spoken sound created by clashing consonants

Cacophony

25

Strong or long pause in the middle of a poetic line created by punctuation or by the sense of the poem

Caesura

26

Literally, "seize the day" the philosophy that gave its name to a kind of seventeenth-century poetry arguing that one should enjoy life today before it passes one by

Carpe diem

27

Traditionally, the moment in a tragedy after the climax, when the rising action has ended and the falling action begun, when the protagonist begins to understand the implications of events that will lead to his or her downfall, and when such events start to occur

Catastrophe

28

Aristotle's term for the emotional reaction or "purgation" that takes place in the audience watching a tragedy

Catharsis

29

rhyme that occurs in the first syllable or syllables of the line

Beginning rhyme

30

What happens in a drama

action

31

Fictional representation of a person, usually but not necessarily in a psychologically realistic way.

Character

32

Well developed, closely involved in the action and responsive to it.

Round character

33

static, stereotypical,

Flat Character

34

growing and changing in the course of action

Dynamic Character

35

remaining unchanged

Static Character

36

Way in which writers develop their characters and reveal those characters' traits to readers

Characterization

37

Group of actors in classical Greek drama who comment in unison on the action and the hero; they are led by the Choragos

Chorus

38

Attitude toward art that values symmetry, clarity, discipline, and objectivity. Neoclassicism, such as that practiced in eighteenth-century Europe, appreciated those qualities as found in Greek and Roman art and culture; Alexander Pope's poetry follows neoclassical principles.

Classicism

39

Overused phrase of expression

cliché

40

Point of greatest tension or importance, where the decisive action of a play or story takes place.

Climax

41

Type of poetic structure that has a recognizable rhyme scheme, meter, or stanzaic pattern.

Closed form

42

Play meant to be read instead of performed--for example, Shelly's Prometheus Unbound

closet drama

43

Any literary work, but especially a play, in which events end happily, a character's fortunes are reversed for the better, and a community is drawn more closely together, often by the marriage of one or more protagonists at the end.

Comedy

44

Comedy that focuses on characters whose behavior is controlled by a characteristic trait, or humor, such as Volpone (1606) by Ben Johnson, who popularized the form.

Comedy of humors

45

Satiric comedy that developed during the sixteenth-century and achieved great popularity in the nineteenth century. This form focuses on the manners and customs of society and directs its satire against the characters who violate its social conventions and norms. The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde .

Comedy of manners

46

Extended or complicated metaphor, common I the Renaissance, that is impressive largely because it shows an author's power to manipulate and sustain a striking comparison between two dissimilar items; John Donne's use of the compass metaphor in "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning" is an example.

Conceit

47

Poem whose typographical appearance on the page reinforces its theme, as with George Herbert's "Easter Wings."

Concrete poem

48

Struggle between opposing forces (protagonist and antagonist) in a work of literature

Conflict

49

Meaning that a word suggests beyond its literal, explicit meaning, carrying emotional associations, judgments, or opinions. Can be positive, neutral, or negative.

Connotation

50

Peak or moment of tension in the action of a story; the point of greatest tension is the climax

Crisis

51

Dictionary meaning of a word; its explicit, literal meaning

Denotation

52

Literary, "the god out of the machine": any improbable resolution of plot involving the intervention of some force or agent hitherto extraneous to the story.

Dues ex machina

53

Particular regional variety of language, which may differ from the more widely used standard or written language in its pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary. Eliza Doolittle's cockney dialect in the George Bernard Shaw play Pygmalion is an example

dialect

54

Conversation between two or more characters

dialogue

55

Word choice of an author, which determines the level of language used in a piece of literature

diction

56

lofty and elaborate diction (typical of Shakespearean nobility)

Formal diction

57

diction that is idiomatic and relaxed (like dialogue in John Updike's "A&P")

informal diction

58

the specialized diction of a professional or occupational group (such as computer hackers.)

Jargon

59

The colloquial expressions, including slag, of a particular group or society

Idiom

60

Poetry whose purpose is to make a point or teach a lesson, particularly, common in the eighteenth century

didactic poetry

61

phrase or word with a deliberate double meaning, one of which is sexual

double entendre

62

literature written to be performed

drama

63

Type of poem perfected by Robert Browning that consists of a single speaker talking to no one or more unseen listeners and often revealing much more about the speaker than he or she seems to intend; Browning's "My Last Duchess" is the best known example for this form

Dramatic monologue

64

Characters in a play

Dramatis personae

65

Poem commemorating someone's death, usually in a reflective or mournful tone, such as A. E. Housman;s "To an Athlete Dying Young."

Elegy

66

Leaving out an unstressed syllable or vowel, usually in order to keep a regular meter in a line of poetry ("o'ver" instead of "over," for example).

Elision

67

Line of poetry that has a full pause at the end, typically indicated by a period or semicolon

End-stopped-line

68

a four-line stanzaic pattern closely related to the ballad stanza. It differs that its rhyme scheme is abab rather than abcb

common measure

69

something whose meaning is so widely understood within a society that authors can expect their audiences to accept and comprehend it unquestioningly--for example, the division of plays into acts with intermissions, or the fact that stepmothers in fairytales are likely to be wicked

Literary convention

70

evoke a general and agreed upon response from most people

conventional symbol

71

exists when fate frustrates any effort a character might make to control or reverse his or her destiny

cosmic Irony

72

stanzaic form of two lines

couplet

73

A type of meter which is composed of three syllables, the first stressed and the subsequent ones unstressed

Dactyl

74

Final stage in the plot of a drama or fiction. Here the action comes to an end and remaining loose ends are tied up.

Denouement

75

when there is more than one story but one string of events is clearly the most significant, the other stories are called subplots.

Double plot

76

Oedipus the King, depends on the audience's knowing something the protagonist has not yet realized (and thus experiencing simultaneously its own interpretation of the events and that of the protagonist).

Dramatic Irony

77

Where rhyming syllables are put at the end of a rhyme

End rhyme

78

Line of poetry that ends with no punctuation or natural pause and consequently runs over into the next line

enjambment

79

Three-line conclusion to a sestina that includes all six of the poem's key words, three placed at the ends of lines and three within the lines

Envoi

80

Long narrative poem recounting the adventures of heroes on whose actions depend the fate of a nation or race. Frequently the gods or other supernatural beings take active interest in the events presented .

Epic

81

Generally to describe a sudden moment of revelation about deep meaning inherent in common things.

Epiphany

82

Word consciously chosen for its pleasant connotations; often used for subjects like sex and death whose frank discussion is somewhat taboo in our society.

Euphemism

83

Pleasant spoke sound created by smooth consonants

Euphony

84

First stage of a plot, where the author presents the information the reader or viewer will need to understand the characters and subsequent action.

Exposition

85

Artistic and literary movement that attempts to portray inner experience. It moves away from realistic portrayals of life and is characterized by violent exaggeration of objective reality and extreme with mood and feeling.

Expressionism

86

A comparison used throughout a work.

Extended metaphor

87

Short didactic story, often involving animals or supernatural beings and stressing a plot above character development., whose object is to teach a pragmatic or moral lesson.

Fable

88

Stage in a play's plot during which the intensity of the climax subsides

falling action

89

Trochaic and dactylic meters, so called because they move from stressed to unstressed syllables.

Falling meter

90

Nonrealistic piece of literature that depends on whimsical plot, supernatural or mythical characters, implausible actions, usually with a happy ending

Fantasy

91

Comedy in which stereotypical characters engage in boisterous horseplay and slapstick humor

Farce

92

Form of narrative that is primarily imaginative, though its form may resemble that of a factual writing like history or biography

Fiction

93

(also called double rhyme or falling rhyme) two syllables correspond, the second of which is stressed

Feminine rhyme

94

Expressions that suggest more than their literal meanings.

Figures of speech

95

Figurative language that depends on international overstatement

Hyperbole

96

Concise form of comparison equating two things that may at first seem completely dissimilar

Metaphor

97

Figure of speech in which the term for one thing can be applied to another in which it is closely associated

Metonymy

98

Attributing of human qualities to things that are not human

Personification

99

Comparison of two seemingly unlike things using the words "like" or "as"

Simile

100

Figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole

Synecdoche

101

Intentional downplaying of a situation's significance, often for ironic or humorous effect

Understatement

102

Variation on chronological order that presents an event or situation that occurred before the time in which the story takes place

Flashback

103

Minor character whose role is to highlight the main character by giving readers a chance to compare and contrast their qualities.

Foil

104

Each repeated unit of a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables

Foot

105

Presentation early in a story of situations, characters, or objects that seem to have no special importance but in fact are later revealed to have great significance

Foreshadowing

106

General organizing principle of a literary work. In poetry, it is described as the presence (or absence) in a particular work of elements like rhyme, meter, and stanzaic pattern.

Form

107

open form poetry makes use of varying line lengths, abandoning stanzaic divisions, breaking lines in unexpected places, and even abandoning any pretense of formal structure

Free verse

108

The five parts of classic dramatic plots: exposition, complication (the introduction of elements that will lead to conflict and ultimately crisis), climax, catastrophe, and resolution.

Freytag's Pyramid

109

Category of literature. Fiction, drama, and poetry are the three major genres; subgenres include the novel, the farce, and the lyric poem.

Genre

110

Seventeen syllable, three-line form of Japanese verse that almost always uses concrete imagery and deals with the natural world.

Haiku

111

Aristotle's term for the "tragic flaw" in characters that eventually causes their downfall in Greek tragedy.

Hamartia

112

Traditionally, the use of the Bible to interpret other historical or current events; in current critical theory, the principles and procedures followed to determine the meaning of text

Hermeneutics

113

First used by Chaucer and especially popular throughout the eighteenth century, as in Alexander Pope's poetry, consists of two rhymed lines of iambic pentameter with a weak pause after the first line and a strong pause after the second.

Heroic Couplet

114

Term introduced in 1877 by George Meredith to denote comedy that appeals to the intellect, such as Shakespeare's As You Like IT.

High Comedy

115

Tragic flaw of overwhelming pride that exists in the protagonists of a tragedy

Hubris

116

Literary attack on folly or vanity by means of ridicule; usually intended to improve society

satire

117

Type of meter that has two syllables, unstressed followed by stressed

iamb

118

Words and phrases that describe the concrete experience of the five senses.

Imagery

119

a group of related images developed throughout a work.

pattern of imagery

120

a from of imagery that mixes the experience of the senses (hearing something visual, smelling something audible)

Synesthesia

121

Freezes the moment to give it the timeless quality of painting or sculpture

Static Imagery

122

Attempts to show motion or change

kinetic imagery

123

Contemporary version of an old, even ancient, oral tale that can be traced back centuries through many different cultures. Folktales include fairy tales, myths and fables.

Folktale

124

Movement in modern poetry much influenced by haiku, stressing terseness and concrete imagery.

Imagism

125

occurs when consonants in two words are the same but intervening vowels are different. "pick/pack" "lads/lids"

imperfect rhyme

126

Describes a work that begins in the middle of the action in order to catch a reader's interest.

In medias res

127

consists of rhyming words found within a line of poetry

Internal rhyme

128

literary device or situation that depends on the existence of at least two separate and contrasting levels of meaning or experience.

Irony

129

Irony that exists when what happens is at odds with what the story's situation leads readers to expect will happen.

Situational Irony

130

Irony that occurs when what is said is in contrast with what is meant. It can be expressed as understatement, hyperbole, or sarcasm.

Verbal Irony

131

Group of literary works generally acknowledged to be the best and most significant to have emerged from our history. The cannon tends to be conservative (it is difficult to add or remove works from it), and it reflects ideological positions that are not universally accepted.

Literary canon

132

Descriptions, analyses, interpretations, or evaluations of works of literature by experts in the field.

Literary criticism

133

Introduced by George Meredith, it refers to comedy with little or no intellectual appeal.

Low Comedy

134

Form of poetry, usually brief and intense, that expresses a poet's subjective response to the world. In classical times, lyrics were set to music. The Romantic poets, particularly Keats, often wrote lyrics about love, death and nature.

Lyric

135

Single syllables correspond

Masculine rhyme

136

Lyric poem that focuses on a physical object, using this object as a vehicle for considering larger issues.

Meditation

137

Sensational play that appeals shamelessly to the emotions, contains elements of tragedy but ends happily, and often relies on set plots and stock characters.

Melodrama

138

Aristotle's term for the purpose of literature, which he felt was "imitation" of life; literature represents the essence of life and we are affected by it because we recognize elements of our own experiences.

Mimesis

139

Extended speech by one character

Monologue

140

Atmosphere created by the elements of a literary work. (setting, characterization, imagery, tone, and so on)

Mood

141

Medieval Christian allegory

Morality play

142

Reasons behind a character's behavior that make us accept or believe that character

motivation

143

Medieval play depicting biblical scenes

Mystery play

144

Anonymous story reflecting the religious and social values of a culture or explaining natural phenomena, often involving gods and heroes.

Myth

145

The "storytelling" of a piece of fiction; the forward-moving recounting of episode and description.

Narrative

146

Person who tells the story

Narrator

147

Nineteenth-century movement whose followers believed that life should not be idealized when depicted in literature. Rather, literature should show that human experience is a continual struggle against an implacable natural world.

Naturalism

148

Greek comedies of the fourth and third centuries B.C. that followed the Old Comedies. They were comedies of romance with stock characters And conventional settings. They lacked the satire, invective, and bawdiness of Old Comedies.

New Comedy

149

Fictional narrative, traditionally realistic, relating a series of events or following the history of a character or group of characters through a period of time

Novel

150

Extended short story, usually concentrated in episode and action but involving greater character development

Novella

151

Relatively long lyric poem, common in antiquity and adapted by the Romantic poets, for whom it was a serious poem of formal diction, often addressed to some significant object that has stimulated the poet's imagination

Ode

152

The first comedies, written in Greece in the fifth century B.C., which heavily satirized the religious and social issues of the day

Old comedy

153

Word whose sound resembles what it describes: "snap, crackle, pop."

Onomatopoeia

154

Sometimes called free verse or vers libre, open form poetry makes use of varying line lengths, abandoning stanzaic divisions, breaking lines in unexpected places, and even abandoning any pretense of formal structure

Open form

155

Writing that stresses careful description of setting and the trappings of daily life, psychological probability, and the lives of ordinary people. It's practitioners believe they are presenting life "as it really is"; Ibsen's A Doll House is an example .

Realism

156

Principal character of a drama or fiction; the hero. The tragic hero is the noble protagonist in Classical Greek drama who falls because of a tragic flaw.

Protagonist

157

Open form poem whose long lines appear to be prose set in paragraphs. For example, Walt Whitman's "Calvary Crossing a Ford."

Prose poem

158

Arch that surrounds the opening in a picture-frame stage; through this arch the audience views the performances

Proscenium arch

159

Pictures, furniture, and so on, that decorate the stage for a play.

Props

160

First part of a play in which the actor gives the background or explanations that the audience needs to follow the rest of the drama

Prologue

161

Works aimed at a mass audience

Popular fiction

162

Suffering that exists simply to satisfy the sentimental or morbid sensibilities of the audience

Pathos

163

Narrator or speaker of a poem or story; in Greek tragedy, the persona was a mask worn by an actor

Persona

164

Episodic, often satirical work about a rogue or rascal

Picaresque

165

Stage that looks like a room with a missing fourth wall through which the audience views the play

Picture-frame stage

166

Way in which the events of the story are arranged.

Plot

167

When there is more than one story but one string of events is clearly the most significant, the other stories are called

Subplots

168

Perspective from which a story is told

Point if view

169

Prose tale set in an idealized rural world; popular in Renaissance England

Pastoral romance

170

Literary work that deals nostalgically and usually unrealistically with a simple, preindustrial rural life; the name comes from the fact that traditionally pastorals feature shepherds

Pastoral

171

Exaggerated imitation of a serious piece of literature for humorous effect.

Parody

172

Seemingly contradictory situation

Paradox

173

Story that uses analogy to make a moral point

Parable

174

Phrase combining two seemingly incompatible elements

Oxymoron

175

4.a. A group of eight lines of poetry, especially the first eight lines of a Petrarchan sonnet. Also called octet.b. A poem or stanza containing eight lines.

Octave

176

An eight line stanza set in iambic pentameter

Ottava rima

177

An octave rhymed abba/abba with a sestet rhymed cdc/cdc or a variation

Petrarchan sonnet

178

Four lines

Quatrain

179

The final stage in the plot of a drama or fiction. Here the action comes to an end and remaining loose ends are tied up

resolution

180

Organization, strategy, and development of literary works, guided by an eye to how such elements will further the writer's intended effects

rhetoric

181

repetition of concluding sounds in different words, often intentionally used at the ends of poetic lines.

rhyme

182

rhyme where three syllables correspond

triple rhyme

183

occurs when words look like they should rhyme but are pronounced differently

eye rhyme

184

The corresponding vowel and consonant sounds of accented syllables must be preceded by different consonants

perfect rhyme

185

Regular recurrence of sounds in a poem. Ordinarily determined by the arrangement of metrical feet in a line.

rhythm

186

Form of irony in which apparent praise is used to convey strong, bitter criticism

sarcasm

187

Curtain that when illuminated from the front appears solid but when lit from the back becomes transparent

scrim

188

reaction against the comedy of manners. This type of comedy relies on sentimental emotion rather than on wit or humor to move an audience and dwells on the virtues of life

sentimental comedy

189

Poem composed of 6 line stanzas and a tree line conclusion called and envoi. Each line ends with one of six key words. The alteration of these six words in different positions--but always at the ends of lines--in the poem's six stanzas creates a rhythmic verbal pattern that unifies the poem

sestina

190

background against which the action of a piece of literature take place; the historical time, locale, season, time of day, interior, decoration, and so on

setting

191

Fictional narrative centered on one climatic event and usually developing only a single character in depth; its scope is narrower than that of a novel, and it often uses setting and characterization more directly to make its theme clear

short story

192

convention of drama in wich a character speaks directly to the audience revealing thoughts and feelings which other characters present on stage are assumed not to hear. Taken to reflect a characters sincere feelings and beliefs

soliloquy

193

Fourteen line poem, usually a lyric in iambic pentameter. It has a strict line scheme in one of two forms: the Petrarchan sonnet or Shakespearean sonnet.

Sonnet

194

three quatrains rhymed abab/cdcd/efef with a concluding couplet rhymed gg

Shakespearean sonnet

195

Narrator or persona of a poem or story

speaker

196

A nine-line form (ababbcbcc) with the first eight lines in iambic pentameter and the last line in iambic hexameter.

Spenserian stanza

197

Two stressed syllables

spondee

198

actions or movements of an actor onstage--for example, lighting a cigarette, leaning on a mantel, straightening a picture.

stage business

199

In the production of a play, scenery and props. In expressionist stage settings, scenery and props are exaggerated and distorted to reflect the workings of a troubled, even abnormal mind. Surrealistic stage settings are designed to mirror the uncontrolled images of dreams or nightmares.

stage setting

200

seven line stanza set in iambic pentameter

rhyme royal