Flashcards in Kirzner Terminology Deck (200):
Iambic hexameter, a common form in French poetry but relatively rare in English poetry
Story with two parallel and consistent levels of meaning, one literal and one figurative, in which the figurative level offer's a moral or political lesson; John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress and Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown"
Has only one meaning (for instance, it may represent good or evil), as opposed to a symbol, which may suggest a complex network of meanings
The system of ideas that conveys the allegory's message
Repetition of initial sounds in a series of words
Reference, often to literature, history, mythology, or the Bible, that is unacknowledged in the text but that the author expects the reader to recognize
International device in which authors invoke a number of possible meanings of a word or grammatical structure by leaving unclear the meaning they intend .
Has three syllables, two unstressed and the third stressed
Character who is in conflict with or opposition to the protagonist; the villain . Sometimes a force or situation rather than a person .
Modern character who possesses the opposite attributes of a hero. Rather than being dignified and powerful, tends to be passive and ineffectual. Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman
Figure of speech in which an absent character or personified force or object is addressed directly, as if it were present or could comprehend
Image or symbol that is so common or significant to a culture that it seems to have a universal importance .
Stage in which the actors are surrounded by the audience; also called theater in round .
Brief comment spoken by the actor to the audience and assumed not to be heard by other characters
Reposition of vowel sounds in a series of words: "creep three feet"
Tone or mood of a literary work, often established by the setting and the language . The emotional aura that determines readers expectations about a work .
Poem about morning usually celebrating the dawn
Narrative poem, rooted in oral tradition, usually arranged in quatrains rhyming abcb and containing a refrain
Alternates lines of eight and six syllables . Typically only the second and fourth lines rhyme
Short tale usually including a moral, in which animals assume human characteristics
Comedy that relies on the morbid and absurd . Often are so satiric that they become ironic and tragic
Lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter in no particular stanzaic form .
Decisions about how characters move and where they stand on stage in a dramatic production
Harsh or unpleasant spoken sound created by clashing consonants
Strong or long pause in the middle of a poetic line created by punctuation or by the sense of the poem
Literally, "seize the day" the philosophy that gave its name to a kind of seventeenth-century poetry arguing that one should enjoy life today before it passes one by
Traditionally, the moment in a tragedy after the climax, when the rising action has ended and the falling action begun, when the protagonist begins to understand the implications of events that will lead to his or her downfall, and when such events start to occur
Aristotle's term for the emotional reaction or "purgation" that takes place in the audience watching a tragedy
rhyme that occurs in the first syllable or syllables of the line
What happens in a drama
Fictional representation of a person, usually but not necessarily in a psychologically realistic way.
Well developed, closely involved in the action and responsive to it.
growing and changing in the course of action
Way in which writers develop their characters and reveal those characters' traits to readers
Group of actors in classical Greek drama who comment in unison on the action and the hero; they are led by the Choragos
Attitude toward art that values symmetry, clarity, discipline, and objectivity. Neoclassicism, such as that practiced in eighteenth-century Europe, appreciated those qualities as found in Greek and Roman art and culture; Alexander Pope's poetry follows neoclassical principles.
Overused phrase of expression
Point of greatest tension or importance, where the decisive action of a play or story takes place.
Type of poetic structure that has a recognizable rhyme scheme, meter, or stanzaic pattern.
Play meant to be read instead of performed--for example, Shelly's Prometheus Unbound
Any literary work, but especially a play, in which events end happily, a character's fortunes are reversed for the better, and a community is drawn more closely together, often by the marriage of one or more protagonists at the end.
Comedy that focuses on characters whose behavior is controlled by a characteristic trait, or humor, such as Volpone (1606) by Ben Johnson, who popularized the form.
Comedy of humors
Satiric comedy that developed during the sixteenth-century and achieved great popularity in the nineteenth century. This form focuses on the manners and customs of society and directs its satire against the characters who violate its social conventions and norms. The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde .
Comedy of manners
Extended or complicated metaphor, common I the Renaissance, that is impressive largely because it shows an author's power to manipulate and sustain a striking comparison between two dissimilar items; John Donne's use of the compass metaphor in "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning" is an example.
Poem whose typographical appearance on the page reinforces its theme, as with George Herbert's "Easter Wings."
Struggle between opposing forces (protagonist and antagonist) in a work of literature
Meaning that a word suggests beyond its literal, explicit meaning, carrying emotional associations, judgments, or opinions. Can be positive, neutral, or negative.
Peak or moment of tension in the action of a story; the point of greatest tension is the climax
Dictionary meaning of a word; its explicit, literal meaning
Literary, "the god out of the machine": any improbable resolution of plot involving the intervention of some force or agent hitherto extraneous to the story.
Dues ex machina
Particular regional variety of language, which may differ from the more widely used standard or written language in its pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary. Eliza Doolittle's cockney dialect in the George Bernard Shaw play Pygmalion is an example
Conversation between two or more characters
Word choice of an author, which determines the level of language used in a piece of literature
lofty and elaborate diction (typical of Shakespearean nobility)
diction that is idiomatic and relaxed (like dialogue in John Updike's "A&P")
the specialized diction of a professional or occupational group (such as computer hackers.)
The colloquial expressions, including slag, of a particular group or society
Poetry whose purpose is to make a point or teach a lesson, particularly, common in the eighteenth century
phrase or word with a deliberate double meaning, one of which is sexual
literature written to be performed
Type of poem perfected by Robert Browning that consists of a single speaker talking to no one or more unseen listeners and often revealing much more about the speaker than he or she seems to intend; Browning's "My Last Duchess" is the best known example for this form
Characters in a play
Poem commemorating someone's death, usually in a reflective or mournful tone, such as A. E. Housman;s "To an Athlete Dying Young."
Leaving out an unstressed syllable or vowel, usually in order to keep a regular meter in a line of poetry ("o'ver" instead of "over," for example).
Line of poetry that has a full pause at the end, typically indicated by a period or semicolon
a four-line stanzaic pattern closely related to the ballad stanza. It differs that its rhyme scheme is abab rather than abcb
something whose meaning is so widely understood within a society that authors can expect their audiences to accept and comprehend it unquestioningly--for example, the division of plays into acts with intermissions, or the fact that stepmothers in fairytales are likely to be wicked
evoke a general and agreed upon response from most people
exists when fate frustrates any effort a character might make to control or reverse his or her destiny
stanzaic form of two lines
A type of meter which is composed of three syllables, the first stressed and the subsequent ones unstressed
Final stage in the plot of a drama or fiction. Here the action comes to an end and remaining loose ends are tied up.
when there is more than one story but one string of events is clearly the most significant, the other stories are called subplots.
Oedipus the King, depends on the audience's knowing something the protagonist has not yet realized (and thus experiencing simultaneously its own interpretation of the events and that of the protagonist).
Where rhyming syllables are put at the end of a rhyme
Line of poetry that ends with no punctuation or natural pause and consequently runs over into the next line
Three-line conclusion to a sestina that includes all six of the poem's key words, three placed at the ends of lines and three within the lines
Long narrative poem recounting the adventures of heroes on whose actions depend the fate of a nation or race. Frequently the gods or other supernatural beings take active interest in the events presented .
Generally to describe a sudden moment of revelation about deep meaning inherent in common things.
Word consciously chosen for its pleasant connotations; often used for subjects like sex and death whose frank discussion is somewhat taboo in our society.
Pleasant spoke sound created by smooth consonants
First stage of a plot, where the author presents the information the reader or viewer will need to understand the characters and subsequent action.
Artistic and literary movement that attempts to portray inner experience. It moves away from realistic portrayals of life and is characterized by violent exaggeration of objective reality and extreme with mood and feeling.
A comparison used throughout a work.
Short didactic story, often involving animals or supernatural beings and stressing a plot above character development., whose object is to teach a pragmatic or moral lesson.
Stage in a play's plot during which the intensity of the climax subsides
Trochaic and dactylic meters, so called because they move from stressed to unstressed syllables.
Nonrealistic piece of literature that depends on whimsical plot, supernatural or mythical characters, implausible actions, usually with a happy ending
Comedy in which stereotypical characters engage in boisterous horseplay and slapstick humor
Form of narrative that is primarily imaginative, though its form may resemble that of a factual writing like history or biography
(also called double rhyme or falling rhyme) two syllables correspond, the second of which is stressed
Expressions that suggest more than their literal meanings.
Figures of speech
Figurative language that depends on international overstatement
Concise form of comparison equating two things that may at first seem completely dissimilar
Figure of speech in which the term for one thing can be applied to another in which it is closely associated
Attributing of human qualities to things that are not human
Comparison of two seemingly unlike things using the words "like" or "as"
Figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole
Intentional downplaying of a situation's significance, often for ironic or humorous effect
Variation on chronological order that presents an event or situation that occurred before the time in which the story takes place
Minor character whose role is to highlight the main character by giving readers a chance to compare and contrast their qualities.
Each repeated unit of a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
Presentation early in a story of situations, characters, or objects that seem to have no special importance but in fact are later revealed to have great significance
General organizing principle of a literary work. In poetry, it is described as the presence (or absence) in a particular work of elements like rhyme, meter, and stanzaic pattern.
open form poetry makes use of varying line lengths, abandoning stanzaic divisions, breaking lines in unexpected places, and even abandoning any pretense of formal structure
The five parts of classic dramatic plots: exposition, complication (the introduction of elements that will lead to conflict and ultimately crisis), climax, catastrophe, and resolution.
Category of literature. Fiction, drama, and poetry are the three major genres; subgenres include the novel, the farce, and the lyric poem.
Seventeen syllable, three-line form of Japanese verse that almost always uses concrete imagery and deals with the natural world.
Aristotle's term for the "tragic flaw" in characters that eventually causes their downfall in Greek tragedy.
Traditionally, the use of the Bible to interpret other historical or current events; in current critical theory, the principles and procedures followed to determine the meaning of text
First used by Chaucer and especially popular throughout the eighteenth century, as in Alexander Pope's poetry, consists of two rhymed lines of iambic pentameter with a weak pause after the first line and a strong pause after the second.
Term introduced in 1877 by George Meredith to denote comedy that appeals to the intellect, such as Shakespeare's As You Like IT.
Tragic flaw of overwhelming pride that exists in the protagonists of a tragedy
Literary attack on folly or vanity by means of ridicule; usually intended to improve society
Type of meter that has two syllables, unstressed followed by stressed
Words and phrases that describe the concrete experience of the five senses.
a group of related images developed throughout a work.
pattern of imagery
a from of imagery that mixes the experience of the senses (hearing something visual, smelling something audible)
Freezes the moment to give it the timeless quality of painting or sculpture
Attempts to show motion or change
Contemporary version of an old, even ancient, oral tale that can be traced back centuries through many different cultures. Folktales include fairy tales, myths and fables.
Movement in modern poetry much influenced by haiku, stressing terseness and concrete imagery.
occurs when consonants in two words are the same but intervening vowels are different. "pick/pack" "lads/lids"
Describes a work that begins in the middle of the action in order to catch a reader's interest.
In medias res
consists of rhyming words found within a line of poetry
literary device or situation that depends on the existence of at least two separate and contrasting levels of meaning or experience.
Irony that exists when what happens is at odds with what the story's situation leads readers to expect will happen.
Irony that occurs when what is said is in contrast with what is meant. It can be expressed as understatement, hyperbole, or sarcasm.
Group of literary works generally acknowledged to be the best and most significant to have emerged from our history. The cannon tends to be conservative (it is difficult to add or remove works from it), and it reflects ideological positions that are not universally accepted.
Descriptions, analyses, interpretations, or evaluations of works of literature by experts in the field.
Introduced by George Meredith, it refers to comedy with little or no intellectual appeal.
Form of poetry, usually brief and intense, that expresses a poet's subjective response to the world. In classical times, lyrics were set to music. The Romantic poets, particularly Keats, often wrote lyrics about love, death and nature.
Single syllables correspond
Lyric poem that focuses on a physical object, using this object as a vehicle for considering larger issues.
Sensational play that appeals shamelessly to the emotions, contains elements of tragedy but ends happily, and often relies on set plots and stock characters.
Aristotle's term for the purpose of literature, which he felt was "imitation" of life; literature represents the essence of life and we are affected by it because we recognize elements of our own experiences.
Extended speech by one character
Atmosphere created by the elements of a literary work. (setting, characterization, imagery, tone, and so on)
Medieval Christian allegory
Reasons behind a character's behavior that make us accept or believe that character
Medieval play depicting biblical scenes
Anonymous story reflecting the religious and social values of a culture or explaining natural phenomena, often involving gods and heroes.
The "storytelling" of a piece of fiction; the forward-moving recounting of episode and description.
Person who tells the story
Nineteenth-century movement whose followers believed that life should not be idealized when depicted in literature. Rather, literature should show that human experience is a continual struggle against an implacable natural world.
Greek comedies of the fourth and third centuries B.C. that followed the Old Comedies. They were comedies of romance with stock characters And conventional settings. They lacked the satire, invective, and bawdiness of Old Comedies.
Fictional narrative, traditionally realistic, relating a series of events or following the history of a character or group of characters through a period of time
Extended short story, usually concentrated in episode and action but involving greater character development
Relatively long lyric poem, common in antiquity and adapted by the Romantic poets, for whom it was a serious poem of formal diction, often addressed to some significant object that has stimulated the poet's imagination
The first comedies, written in Greece in the fifth century B.C., which heavily satirized the religious and social issues of the day
Word whose sound resembles what it describes: "snap, crackle, pop."
Sometimes called free verse or vers libre, open form poetry makes use of varying line lengths, abandoning stanzaic divisions, breaking lines in unexpected places, and even abandoning any pretense of formal structure
Writing that stresses careful description of setting and the trappings of daily life, psychological probability, and the lives of ordinary people. It's practitioners believe they are presenting life "as it really is"; Ibsen's A Doll House is an example .
Principal character of a drama or fiction; the hero. The tragic hero is the noble protagonist in Classical Greek drama who falls because of a tragic flaw.
Open form poem whose long lines appear to be prose set in paragraphs. For example, Walt Whitman's "Calvary Crossing a Ford."
Arch that surrounds the opening in a picture-frame stage; through this arch the audience views the performances
Pictures, furniture, and so on, that decorate the stage for a play.
First part of a play in which the actor gives the background or explanations that the audience needs to follow the rest of the drama
Works aimed at a mass audience
Suffering that exists simply to satisfy the sentimental or morbid sensibilities of the audience
Narrator or speaker of a poem or story; in Greek tragedy, the persona was a mask worn by an actor
Episodic, often satirical work about a rogue or rascal
Stage that looks like a room with a missing fourth wall through which the audience views the play
Way in which the events of the story are arranged.
When there is more than one story but one string of events is clearly the most significant, the other stories are called
Perspective from which a story is told
Point if view
Prose tale set in an idealized rural world; popular in Renaissance England
Literary work that deals nostalgically and usually unrealistically with a simple, preindustrial rural life; the name comes from the fact that traditionally pastorals feature shepherds
Exaggerated imitation of a serious piece of literature for humorous effect.
Seemingly contradictory situation
Story that uses analogy to make a moral point
Phrase combining two seemingly incompatible elements
4.a. A group of eight lines of poetry, especially the first eight lines of a Petrarchan sonnet. Also called octet.b. A poem or stanza containing eight lines.
An eight line stanza set in iambic pentameter
An octave rhymed abba/abba with a sestet rhymed cdc/cdc or a variation
The final stage in the plot of a drama or fiction. Here the action comes to an end and remaining loose ends are tied up
Organization, strategy, and development of literary works, guided by an eye to how such elements will further the writer's intended effects
repetition of concluding sounds in different words, often intentionally used at the ends of poetic lines.
rhyme where three syllables correspond
occurs when words look like they should rhyme but are pronounced differently
The corresponding vowel and consonant sounds of accented syllables must be preceded by different consonants
Regular recurrence of sounds in a poem. Ordinarily determined by the arrangement of metrical feet in a line.
Form of irony in which apparent praise is used to convey strong, bitter criticism
Curtain that when illuminated from the front appears solid but when lit from the back becomes transparent
reaction against the comedy of manners. This type of comedy relies on sentimental emotion rather than on wit or humor to move an audience and dwells on the virtues of life
Poem composed of 6 line stanzas and a tree line conclusion called and envoi. Each line ends with one of six key words. The alteration of these six words in different positions--but always at the ends of lines--in the poem's six stanzas creates a rhythmic verbal pattern that unifies the poem
background against which the action of a piece of literature take place; the historical time, locale, season, time of day, interior, decoration, and so on
Fictional narrative centered on one climatic event and usually developing only a single character in depth; its scope is narrower than that of a novel, and it often uses setting and characterization more directly to make its theme clear
convention of drama in wich a character speaks directly to the audience revealing thoughts and feelings which other characters present on stage are assumed not to hear. Taken to reflect a characters sincere feelings and beliefs
Fourteen line poem, usually a lyric in iambic pentameter. It has a strict line scheme in one of two forms: the Petrarchan sonnet or Shakespearean sonnet.
three quatrains rhymed abab/cdcd/efef with a concluding couplet rhymed gg
Narrator or persona of a poem or story
A nine-line form (ababbcbcc) with the first eight lines in iambic pentameter and the last line in iambic hexameter.
Two stressed syllables
actions or movements of an actor onstage--for example, lighting a cigarette, leaning on a mantel, straightening a picture.
In the production of a play, scenery and props. In expressionist stage settings, scenery and props are exaggerated and distorted to reflect the workings of a troubled, even abnormal mind. Surrealistic stage settings are designed to mirror the uncontrolled images of dreams or nightmares.