L 1 Introduction Flashcards Preview

KCUMB Genetics Exam 1 > L 1 Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in L 1 Introduction Deck (33):
1

Genetics

Study of genes, heredity and genetic variation in living organisms. Generally considered biology however spans many of the life sciences

2

Molecular Genetics

Studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level

3

Why is the study of genetics important

Genes...

Influence our lives
Contribute to personality
Fundamental to who and what we are

4

Baby genes newborn screening panel

Must be ordered by a physician, screens about 100 genes that are not on the normal screening panel

5

Reasons not to edit the human germline

Still issues with safety, efficacy and delivery, must assess the debate of various people involved, moral reasons

6

Reasons for editing the human genome

No more risky than natural sexual selection, rid certain disease

7

Luxturna

A genetically modified virus that ferries a healthy gene into the eyes of patients born with retinal dystrophy

8

Genome

Complete set of genetic instructions for any organism, can be RNA or DNA, coding system for genomic information

9

Transmission genetics

Classical genetics, how traits are passed from one generation to the next

10

Molecular Genetics

Studies gene structure, function, and regulation

11

Population genetics

The study of the genetic composition of groups and how gene frequency changes geographically or with time (evolution)

12

Population genetics and epidemiology

Analyzes the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease in defined populations

13

Model genetic organisms

Organisms with characteristics that make them useful for genetic analysis

14

Most common model organisms

Fruit fly (Drosphilia), E. Coli, C. Elegans, Arabidopsis, Mus musculus, Sachamomyces (yeast), Danio rerio (zebrafish)

15

Traits beneficial in model organisms

Short generation time, produces numerous progeny, ability to carry out controlled genetic crosses, ability to be reared in a laboratory environment, availability of numerous genetic variants, vast body of knowledge of genetic systems

16

Why are model organisms useful

Because of the basic similarity among all living things

17

First multicellular organism to have entire genome sequenced

C. elegan

18

Germ-plasm theory

All cells contain a complete set of genetic information

19

Cell theory

All life is composed of cells and cells arise only from cells

20

Mendelian inheritance

Traits are inherited in accord with defined principles

21

Pangenesis

Incorrect theory that states genetic information travels from different parts of the body to the reproductive organs

22

Inheritance of acquired characteristics

Incorrect theory that states that traits used more often are placed into the genetic information and ones that are not are lost

23

Preformation

Incorrect theory that states miniature organisms resides in sex cells and all traits are inherited from a single parent

24

Blending inheritance

Incorrect theory that states genes blend and mix

25

Homunculus

A fully formed human that is found in the egg or sperm, associated with preformation theory of genetics

26

Lamarkianism

if an organism changes over the course of its life and those traits are passed to the next generation

27

Weismann

In 1892 postulated the theory of germ plasm

28

Gregor Mendel

Principles of heredity

29

Schleiden and Schwann

Cell theory

30

Flemming

Chromosomes

31

Darwin

Evolution

32

Sutton

Genes are located on the chromosomes

33

Human Genome Project

The first sequencing of the entire human genome, published in April of 2003