L1 - Definitions, models, normality, abnormality & Diagnosis Flashcards Preview

Psychopathology of Everyday Life > L1 - Definitions, models, normality, abnormality & Diagnosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in L1 - Definitions, models, normality, abnormality & Diagnosis Deck (27):

What is defined as abnormality?

behavioural, emotional or cognitive dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with personal distress or substantial impairment


What are some ways that people might define abnormality, but prove to be areas of subjectivity?

statistical infrequency
norm violation
personal distress


what is psychopathology?

the study of the nature, causes and development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts and feelings.


why diagnose or classify psychopathology?

communication, treatment, prognosis, necessary for statistics and research


negatives of diagnosis or classification?

bias / restrictive thinking
jargon - assumptive
inhibit research - peoples experiences aren't always the same


what are the "diagnoses" in psychopathology?

- presenting problem
- clinical description: what psychologist sees
- age of onset
- acute or inisidious onset
- course
- prognosis


what are symptoms?

subjective complaints reported by a patient

eg. low mood, paranoia


what are signs?

objective findings observed by a clinician.

eg. tachycardia, poor eye contact, accelerated speech


what is a syndrome?

signs, symptoms and events that occur in a particular pattern and indicate the existence of a disorder.


what is a disorder?

a syndrome which can be discriminated from other syndromes.

if it is labelled a disorder, this means there is a distinct course to the syndrome, and the age and gender characters of the disorder have been described.
prognosis may be known.


what is a disease?

it is a disorder but with indications of abnormal physiological processes or structural abnormalities.

eg. dementia

so we can't call depression a disease


what are the three modes of classification?



describe the categorial approach of classification

This divides psychological disorders into categories based on criteria with defining features.

pros - better clinical utility, easier for communication, useful in data collection/research

cons - pigeon hole people, not a true representation of reality, restricts thinking on research and even treatment


describe the dimensional approach of classification

mental health disorders are quantified on a scale that can vary and change over time - people can move back and forward on dimensions.

pros - greater capacity to detect change, more reflective of the real world, can treat relevent stages or symptoms of a disorder, allows for individualised diagnosis

cons - lack of boundaries makes it hard to utilise, hard to implement.


what is the prototypical approach?

considered to be half way between categorical and dimensional approach.

identifies essential characteristics of a disorder that must be met and non-essential characteristics that are optional.


Describe the psychodynamic model of mental illness?

Freud - much of human behaviour is unconscious!

Id - human's most primitive drives.
Ego - conscious self
Superego - morality - develops last

Says that all behaviour (normal and abnormal) are the result of conflict between the Id, Ego and Superego.

Stages of psychosexual dev - oral, anal, phallic and latency

defence mechanisms - projection, splitting, denial.


Differences between medical and psychoanalytic models?

Psychoanalytic model proposes that there is no clear distinction between insane and sane people.
Everyone lies on a continuum. No specific disease process.

Also, psychoanalytic model proposes that one underlying cause can produce numerous different symptoms, and the same symptoms can be from a variety of different causes. Symptoms were not crucially important in understanding and treating individuals, unlike in bio model


Describe the Biological Model of MI?

Causes for MI may be biological: genetics, brain damage, neurochemistry, viruses, gut organisms are linked to depression.


What are some treatments from the biological perspective?

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) - traditionally used to treat schizophrenia. Still sometimes used for depression. Invasive.

Prefrontal lobotomy.


Limitations of the biological perspective?

Reductionism - complex human phenomena such as beliefs, values and interpretations cannot be reduced to basic biological processes.

Direction of causation is unclear.

Effectiveness of treatment does not imply causation.


Cognitive and Social Learning Models?

social and developmental factors - media, social influence, culture etc.

Learned behaviours : - social learning theory, operant behaviour, classical conditioning models...


Describe the Stress-Vulnerability Model

- Everyone can develop mental illness in the right circumstances.
- Everyone has a level of vulnerability. This level is impacted by life and social factors... temperament, family environment, self-esteem, previous experience with stressors.

Model promotes health and resilience.


Describe ABC Model

The way an individual appraises the world, influences their reactions..

Appraisal of events = response.

CBT derived from this idea.


Describe Biopsychosocial Model

Intergrates biological, psychological and social/environmental factors into the explanation of mental health issues.

stresses that there are multiple causes behind MI.


What are the models of MI discussed?

Cognition and social learning
ABC model
Clinical Staging Model
Transdiagnostic model


Explain the Clinical Staging Model?

McGorry Et al. (2006)

challenges categorical model by proposing a spectrum of 'stages' for each illness.
it's aim is to detect/treat MI in its early stages, with less invasive/intense treatments.
Want to prevent patients from progressing to the next stage of illness.

4 stages. different treatments associated with each stage.


Explain the transdiagnostic model of mental illness?

Aims to treat the vulnerability factor rather than the disorder. considers all psychological illnesess to lie on one continuum.
thinks that there are multiple possible factors that might cause illness.
Most people who have a MI have more than one diagnosis - this will reduce comorbid diagnoses.

eg: Perfectionism
associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders.