L121. Growth and Development Flashcards Preview

2f. BDS2 CDS Paediatric Dentistry > L121. Growth and Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in L121. Growth and Development Deck (30)
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L121: Describe the jaw relationship at birth.

- Gum pads widely separated anteriorly;
- Tongue resting on lower gum pad;
- Tongue in contact with lower lip.


L121: What is the general sequence of eruption primary teeth?

- Anterior to posterior;
- Generally, mandibular before maxillary;
- Eruption begins at 6 months;
- Usually complete by 24 months;
- Wide variation of 'normal'.


L121: Describe typical characteristics of the primary dentition.

- Incisors upright;
- Incisors are spaced;
- Teeth are smaller;
- Reduced overjet;
- Whiter.


L121: In what order are psychological skills developed in a child?

- Motor;
- Cognitive;
- Perceptual;
- Language;
- Social.



L121: What are the stages of cognitive development?

- Sensorimotor;
- Preoperational thought;
- Concrete options;
- Formal operations.

[come with experience]


L121: What is the sensorimotor stage?

- First stage of child's life (until 2 years);
- Coupling of sensory and motor system;
- Prime objective is object permanence.


L121: What is the preoperational thought stage?

- Second stage;
- 2-7 years;
- Allows child to predict outcomes of behaviour;
- Facilitated by language development;
- Egocentric;
- Unable to understand why areas and volumes remain unchanged, even though shape and position may change.


L121: What is the concrete operational stage?

- Third stage;
- 7-11 years;
- Apply logic;
- Able to see other's perspective;
- Still difficult to think in an abstract manner.


L121: What is the formal operational stage?

- Fourth and final stage;
- From 11 years;
- Logical abstract thinking and therefore different possibilities for an action can be considered.


L121: What is perceptual development?

- Awareness and interaction with the surroundings;
- Based on five senses;
- Compared to an adult, a child will cover less of an object, take in less information and become fixated on details;
- Selective attention by 7 years.


L121: Describe the language of a child 1 y/o.

- Vocabulary of 20 words;
- Simple phrases;
- Relates objects to words;
- Uses 2-3 words (repetitive babble/ tuneful jargon);
- Sound: b, d, m.


L121: Describe the language of a child 2 y/o.

- Vocabulary of 100 words;
- Understands simple commands, questions, joins in action songs;
- Puts 2 words together;
- Echolalia (copies what you say);
- Sounds: p, t, k, g, n.


L121: Describe the language of a child 3 y/o.

- Understands prepositions (on, under etc.), functions of object, simple conversations;
- Uses 4 word sentences, what, who, where, relates experiences;
- Sounds: f, s, l.


L121: Describe the language of a child 4 y/o.

- Understands colours, numbers, tenses, complex instructions;
- Long, grammatical sentences, relates stories;
- Sounds: v, z, ch, j.


L121: Name some disorders that can effect speech and language.

- Leanring difficulties;
- Cerebal palsy (neurological condition;
- Autism;
- Delayed speech and language development;
- Head injury;
- Acquired neurological disorders;
- Non fluency;
- Dysphonia (hoarseness);
- Craniofacial disorders.


L121: What is cleft lip and palate?

- A gap or split in the upper lip and/or roof of the mouth (palate);
- Present from birth;
- Due to parts of the baby's face not joining properly during development in the womb.


L121: What is velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI)?

A disorder of structure that causes a failure of the velum (soft palate) to close against the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat) during speech in order to close off the nose (nasal cavity) during oral speech production


L121: What is an oro-nasal fistulae?

An abnormal open path from the oral cavity into the nasal sinus


L121: What is Class 111 occlusion?

Forward mandibular division


L121: What are the roles of the cleft team?

- Assessment;
- Diagnosis;
- Treatment.


L121: Who is involved in the multidisciplinary team of a cleft patient?

- Speech and language therapist;
- Primary cleft surgeon;
- Secondary cleft surgeon;
- Orthodontist;
- Paediatric dentist;
- ENT surgeon;
- Geneticist;
- Nurse;
- Psychologist.


L121: What feeding skills should develop in a 0-3 month old infant?

- Normal oral tone;
- Rhythmical sucking;
- Primitive reflexes: gag/ rooting/ suck/ swallow;
- Semi-reclined feeding position;
- Liquid diet.


L121: What feeding skills should develop in a 4-6month old infant?

- Head control;
- More control of suck/ swallow;
- Munching;
- Move towards semi-solid diet;
- Starts babbling.


L121: What feeding skills should develop in a 7-9 month old infant?

- Sitting feeding position;
- Mashed consistency;
- Finger food;
- Upper lip movement;
- Chewing and bolus formation;
- Bite reflex;
- Mouthing.


L121: What feeding skills should develop in a 10-12 month old infant?

- Lumpy food;
- Sustained bite;
- Active lip closure;
- Chewing, lateralisation;
- Cup drinking.


L121: What feeding skills should develop in a 24 month old infant?

A mature and integrated feeding pattern


L121: When treating a child, what should be assessed before treatment?

- Pain?;
- Past dental history;
- Relevant past medical history;
- Social history;
- Level of understanding and potential co-operation;
- Level of anxiety.


L121: What problems are there with family presence, when examining a child?

- Behaviour contagion;
- Well-intentioned but improper preparation;
- Discussing dental tx within child's hearing;
- Enhancing the child's anxiety;
- Threatening the child with dental tx.


L121: In a dental setting, what frightens children?

- The unknown;
- Sight of LA;
- Sight/ sound of drill;
- Mutilation;
- Choking;
- Perceived expectation of ill-tx/ trauma;
- Strangers.


L121: What typical manifestations are there of anxiety in children?

- Thumb-sucking;
- Nail-biting;
- Nose-picking;
- Clumsiness;
- Stuttering;
- Stomach pain;
- Need to go to toilet;
- Headache;
- Dizziness;
- Fidgeting;
- No speech;
- Clinging to parent;
- Hiding.

[related to age, sex, and social class]