L2A - History and Paradigms 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L2A - History and Paradigms 2 Deck (12):
1

Paradigms=

Pre-existing frame of reference that is shared with others and includes

2

The 5 Paradigms in Contemporary Psychology:

Scientific paradigms (testable)

  • Behavioural
  • Cognitive (Current dominant paradigm)
  • Biological

Non-scientific paradigms (untestable)

  • Psychodynamic
  • Humanistic

3

The Behavioural Paradigm:

General definition:

  • The scientific study of behaviour

Focal topics:

  • Learning

Methods:

  • Experimental (mostly animal)

Language and concepts:

  • Stimulus, response, conditioning, reinforcement, shaping

Root Metaphor:

  • Lump of clay/Blank slate – All differences in behaviour are due to learnings

4

The Cognitive Paradigm

General definition of field:

  • The scientific study of mental processes (as shown in behaviour)

Specific focal topics:

  • Perception, attention, memory, thinking

Methods:

  • Experimental (mostly human)

Language and Concepts:

  • Input, output, codes, serial processing, memory stores

Root metaphor:

  • Programmed computer – we can track how information changes

Intellectual Influences

  • Prior: Mentalism, behaviourism
  • Contemporary: Computer science, especially Artificial Intelligence

 

5

The Biological Paradigm:

General definition of field:

  • The scientific study of the biological basis of behaviour

Specific focal topics:

  • Similar to behavioural and cognitive

Methods:

  • Experimental (where possible: Sometimes, ideal experiments aren’t ethical), case study, correlation

Language and concepts:

  • Biological terms (brain anatomy), behavioural and cognitive terms

Root metaphor:

  • Biological machine: “While we are made up biologically, our parts are put together in a mechanical way”

Intellectual influences

  • Prior: Behaviourism
  • Contemporary: Neuro-anatomy and physiology, cognitive perspectives

6

The Psychodynamic Paradigm:

General definition of field:

  • Study of conscious and unconscious processes as shown in mental illness (they believe unconscious processes are more powerful)

Specific focal topics:

  • Mental illness (coming from a ‘healer’ perspective)

Methods:

  • Case history

Language and concepts:

  • Ego (inner adult), Id (inner child), Superego (inner parent), defence mechanisms: projection, rejection

Root Metaphor:

  • Surface (mental illness), deeper (fluid dynamics)

Intellectual influences

  • Prior: philosophy
  • Contemporary: Victorian culture, medicine, Darwinian struggle to survive

 

  • Developed by freud – has a very sexual focus
  • Not strictly a science

7

The Humanistic Paradigm:

General definition of the field:

  • The study of conscious human experience

Specific focal topics:

  • Individual awareness, conscious choices, well-being

Methods:

  • Case history

Language and concepts:

  • Personal growth, self-actualisation, awareness, transcendence, free-will, human potential

Root metaphor:

  • Growth (in response to issues)

Intellectual influences

  • Prior: Psychodynamic, behavioural
  • Contemporary: 1960’s culture, existentialism, “eastern” philosophies

 

  • Anti-scientific often
  • Very people/individuality focused
  • Most psychologists nowadays are psychodynamic or humanistic

8

Behavioural approache to Depression:

Perspective:

  • Depressed or ↓ rate of behaviour (sleeping, appetite, exercise, social isolation) = ↓ Rewards

Management approach:

  • Increase/shape behaviour by rewarding behaviour [Immediate]

9

Cognitive approach to Depression:

Perspective

  • Pervasive, negative automatic thinking or self- efficacy (what I do might lead to something bad) (e.g. won't go because I won't have a good time)

Management approach

  • Identify and address negative thought processes [Immediate]

10

Biological approach to Depression:

Perspective

  • Underactive brain areas/neurotransmitter systems

Management approach

  • Medications to ↑ activation of the systems (e.g. serotonin, dopamine) [Slow (month)]

11

Psychodynamic approaches to Depression:

Perspective:

  • Subconscious forces are causing depression (e.g. repressed anger)

Management approach:

  • Provide individual with greater insight into these forces so that they may eventually become balanced [Very slow]

12

Humanistic approach to Depression:

Perspective:

  • Related to experiences and choices that were made by the individual (e.g. depression started when uni began)

Management approach:

  • Counsel that depression is a natural prompt to make different choices/change direction in life (optimistic) [Immediate]