Flashcards in L5- Fever and Cough Deck (21):
4 main risk factors for respiratory tract infections?
young (<2) or old age (>65)
- mechanical impairment
- comorbid conditions
- hopital exposure
chronic lung disease
streptococcus pneumoniae- clasification, where does it colonise and prevalence demographics
what other diseases can it cause?
alpha haemolytic (gram postive) streptococcus
- colonises the nasopharynx
- more common in children, and increases in winter
bacteraemia, septic arthritis and meningitis
what are the 5 pneumococcal virulence factors?
pneumococcal surface protein A- binds to epithelial cells and prevents deposition
polysaccharide capsule prevents phagocytosiss and complement activation
choline binding protein binds to Ig receptor on epithelial cells - allows transport into cell
what are the investigations for pneumonia?
CXR- if normal, no antibiotics requried
what treatment should be given for pneumonia? why?
- reduces the duration of illness and risk of death
uses of microlides
braod spectrum antibiotic
- active against most causes of pneumonia
- treatment of chlamydia
3 examples of macrolides?
3 adverse effects of macrolide antimicrobials
what does the treatment of pneumonia depend on?
based on the severity and the setting (community vs. hospital) of pneumonia
treatment for mild pneumonia? (good enough to stay at home)
moderate pneumonia treatment?
amoxicillin 1g oral and roxithromycin 300mg daily
treatment for very sick pneumonia patients
needs intensive care
amoxycillin 1.2gm IV, erythromycin 1 g IV
what is cefuroxime (effects and advantages)
should be used for healthcare assocaited pneumonia
- useful against gram positive and negative (also B lactamase resistant)
differnce in definition between pnemonia and brnchitis? differnce in treatment?
pneumonia - infection in alveolar spaces and bronchioles (requires treatment)
bronchitis - infection of the conducting airways (does not require treatment)
what does the colour of sputum indicate? is this indicative of pneumonia?
indicates inflammatory cells and debris
- NOT pneumonia
what are the main 5 possible signs of pneumonia in the elderly
consolidation (dullness to percussion)
fever and chills
confusion and delirium
CXR results for bronchitis?
usually normal- potenitlaly some bronchial wall thickening
which 3 respiratory tract infections are entirely bacterial?
epiglottitis- life threatening
2 respiratory infections that are entirely viral?
4 most common mcirobial agents that cause community acquired pneumonia?
influenza and viruses