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Flashcards in L5- Fever and Cough Deck (21):
1

4 main risk factors for respiratory tract infections?

young (<2) or old age (>65)
- mechanical impairment
- comorbid conditions
- hopital exposure
chronic lung disease
smoking
immune dysfunction

2

streptococcus pneumoniae- clasification, where does it colonise and prevalence demographics

what other diseases can it cause?

alpha haemolytic (gram postive) streptococcus
- colonises the nasopharynx
- more common in children, and increases in winter

bacteraemia, septic arthritis and meningitis

3

what are the 5 pneumococcal virulence factors?

pneumococcal surface protein A- binds to epithelial cells and prevents deposition

polysaccharide capsule prevents phagocytosiss and complement activation

choline binding protein binds to Ig receptor on epithelial cells - allows transport into cell

4

what are the investigations for pneumonia?

CXR- if normal, no antibiotics requried

sputum culture
nasopharyngeal swabs

5

what treatment should be given for pneumonia? why?

antibiotics- required
- reduces the duration of illness and risk of death

6

uses of microlides

braod spectrum antibiotic
- active against most causes of pneumonia
- treatment of chlamydia

7

3 examples of macrolides?

erythromycin
clarithromycin
azithromycin

8

3 adverse effects of macrolide antimicrobials

GIT upset
sudden death
drug-drug interactions

9

what does the treatment of pneumonia depend on?

based on the severity and the setting (community vs. hospital) of pneumonia

10

treatment for mild pneumonia? (good enough to stay at home)

amoxycillin 500mg

11

moderate pneumonia treatment?

amoxicillin 1g oral and roxithromycin 300mg daily

12

treatment for very sick pneumonia patients

needs intensive care
amoxycillin 1.2gm IV, erythromycin 1 g IV

13

what is cefuroxime (effects and advantages)

should be used for healthcare assocaited pneumonia
- useful against gram positive and negative (also B lactamase resistant)

14

differnce in definition between pnemonia and brnchitis? differnce in treatment?

pneumonia - infection in alveolar spaces and bronchioles (requires treatment)

bronchitis - infection of the conducting airways (does not require treatment)

15

what does the colour of sputum indicate? is this indicative of pneumonia?

indicates inflammatory cells and debris
- NOT pneumonia

16

what are the main 5 possible signs of pneumonia in the elderly

increased RR

crackles

consolidation (dullness to percussion)

fever and chills

confusion and delirium

17

CXR results for bronchitis?

usually normal- potenitlaly some bronchial wall thickening

18

which 3 respiratory tract infections are entirely bacterial?

mastoiditis
epiglottitis- life threatening
pneumonia

19

2 respiratory infections that are entirely viral?

tracheolaryngitis (croup)
bronchitis

20

4 most common mcirobial agents that cause community acquired pneumonia?

strep. pneumonia
haemophillus influenzae
klebiella pneumonia
influenza and viruses

21

when are the gram -ive gut bacteria cause pneumonia?
- microbial examples?

in the hospital setting
- e. coli
- k. pneumoniae