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Flashcards in LA#13, LA#14, LA#15 Chapter 4 in Stanhope Deck (14)
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1

What is the focus of the definition of health in the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion?a.Health is an outcome.b.Enjoying life is more important than the need to maintain one’s health.c.Health is incorporated into one’s activities of daily living.d.Health is a way to maintain a stable environment.

C
The perspective taken in this text is based on the Ottawa Charter definition of health: “to reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment.” Therefore, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified health as a resource for everyday living, i.e., taking a holistic approach that includes physical, social, and personal capabilities, with health being viewed positively. When using this definition, health is no longer viewed as an outcome (or a state to be reached); rather, health is incorporated into one’s activities of daily living. Today, Health Canada continues to apply the Ottawa Charter definition of health. The view of health as a resource proposes that communities and individuals use this resource to manage and even change their environments.

2

What is the basis for the difference between health promotion and health protection?
a.The assurance of the highest possible quality in careb.The motivation to change behaviourc.Delivery of care by a group of health care providersd.The achievements of social marketing campaigns

B
Pender et al. (2002) differentiate between health promotion and health protection on the basis of motivation for behaviour change. These authors describe health promotion as the motivation to change behaviour in order to enhance well-being and reach one’s optimal health potential. In contrast, the motivation for health protection is to avoid disease, to screen for early detection, and to restore health following illness.

3

In his document entitled Achieving Health for All: A Framework for Health Promotion, Epp supported a community and policy focus in health promotion. Which one of the following did he recommend?
a.Cooperating fully with the WHO member nations in implementing the plan internationallyb.Denying that the goal of health is socially and economically productive lives for all citizensc.Taking actions that foster public participationd.Focusing primarily on disease prevention and health promotion in selected areas

C
Epp’s framework supported a community and policy focus in health promotion through fostering public participation (e.g., heart-healthy physical activity promotion initiatives), strengthening community health services (e.g., increasing community mental health services), and coordinating healthy public policy (e.g., a nationwide ban on the sale and use of baby walkers).

4

Which of the following accurately describes an appropriate starting point for the application of a population health approach?a.Emergency life-saving careb.The determinants of healthc.Health promotion modelsd.Risk management

B
The population health approach has, as its starting point, a focus on the determinants of health. Other starting points are also discussed but are not included in the above answer choices.

5

How is the contemplation stage for changing behaviour different from the precontemplation stage for changing behaviour?a.During the contemplation stage, the client does not yet intend to change his or her behaviour within the next 6 months.b.During the contemplation stage, there is a lack of readiness to change behaviour.c.During the precontemplation stage, there is a readiness to change behaviour.d.During the contemplation stage, the client is thinking about changing behaviour within the next 6 months.

D
In the precontemplation stage, an individual is not considering a change in behaviour within the next 6 months; there is no readiness for change. However, in the contemplation stage, an individual is starting to think about a change in behaviour within the next 6 months.

6

Which report focused on the introduction of the “health field concept” with its four domains?a.Epp Reportb.Black Reportc.Lalonde Reportd.WHO Commission Report on Social Determinants

C
The Lalonde Report focused on the introduction of the health field concept with four domains: human biology, lifestyle, environment, and health care system as determinants of health.

7

What is the most important feature of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory?a.It avoids high-cost treatments and suggests cheaper alternatives.b.It gives members incentives to use only network providers.c.It shows that individuals adopt innovations at different rates.d.It advocates working with geographically based communities.

C
This theory shows that individuals adopt innovations at different rates.

8

The Canadian Community Health Nursing Standards of Practice identifies a community health nurse (CHN)’s role as advocate in creating public policy, as supporter of community action to influence public policy, and as instrument for societal change. Which one of the following is an example of a healthy public policy?a.Immunizationsb.Behaviour changec.Marketing materialsd.Crib/bed safety initiatives for infants and young children

D
Examples of a healthy public policy include crib/bed safety for infants and young children, restraint use in long-term-care institutions, seatbelt use for populations, and a tobacco ban in communities.

9

Which one of the following is an example of self-efficacy?a.Attending a walk-in clinic for health careb.Allowing others input into one’s health decisionsc.Paying for a fitness centre membershipd.Making healthy food choices while grocery shopping

D
Self-efficacy refers to a belief that one can control one’s life and have the ability to carry out actions required to prevent disease; a specific example is making healthy food choices while grocery shopping.

10

Using the Community Mobilization Framework and the three health promotion community mobilization approaches, which element should be addressed first within the framework’s social planning component?a.Shifting power relationshipsb.Problem solving at the community levelc.Community participationd.Community social concerns

B
The Community Mobilization Framework identifies the following three health promotion community mobilization approaches to bring about community change: 1) social planning (problem solving at the community level to deal with physical, mental, and social health concerns in the community), which is described as a task-oriented strategy that includes a health care professional as the “expert leader”; 2) locality development (community participation and cooperation to deal with community health concerns, with a focus on process, consensus, and community self-help), with the health care professional as facilitator; and 3) social action (a process with the focus on shifting power relationships and resources so that change occurs to the benefit of the disadvantaged in the community).

11

Which of the following main ideas was Lalonde highlighting in his report entitled A New Perspective in the Health of Canadians (1974)?a.Access to health care and cost and quality of health careb.Appropriate legislation to control health care organizationsc.The influence of biology, environment, and lifestyle on good healthd.Accessibility and health promotion

C
The Lalonde Report initiated a shift, especially in Canada, from a primarily biomedical view of disease and health to consideration of certain aspects of health promotion. The Lalonde Report increased the awareness of human biology, environment, and lifestyle as determinants of health and, therefore, as influencers of health. He urged improvements in the environment, increased knowledge in human biology, and modifications of self-imposed risks arising from individual health choices and related behaviours to increase the population health status of Canadians.

12

Which one of the following is perhaps the most helpful idea among the unlimited suggestions for how to improve health care in Canadian communities?a.Increasing funding and personnel to advance new pharmaceutical interventionsb.Increasing funding for further research into the most effective medical interventionsc.Increasing technological advances to constantly improve surgical survival ratesd.Involving communities in their health care and encouraging their participation in decisions about health care

D
The strategy of strengthening community action, as outlined in the Ottawa Charter, refers to empowering communities. It involves engaging communities from the grassroots, or “bottom up” (referred to as “locality development” as outlined by Rothman), so as to involve community members in identifying health issues and planning and initiating interventions specific to their communities. In this way, communities take ownership and have control over health issues affecting them and the health of their members.

13

Which one of the following is the most important ingredient for effective community development?a.Adequate fundingb.Appropriate location for the services providedc.Community participationd.Professional expertise

C
Community participation is absolutely essential to community development. The most effective changes come with active participation by the people who live in the community. Community development is a process whereby community members identify health concerns impacting their community that require the development of capacity-building skills to bring about a realization of the needed change, with the goal of a secure and healthy community that benefits all community members.

14

What is the focus of health promotion in Canada?a.Achieving consensus on community health needs
b.Developing a population approach based on the determinants of health
c.Dictating interventions that match the government’s identified priorities
d.Promoting individual health status

B
In Canada, a population approach focusing on the determinants of health is the direction taken in health promotion, in contrast to the focus on promotion of individual health in some other countries, such as the United States.