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Flashcards in LA Random Questions Deck (67):
1

Average water intake and urine production for LA?

water intake: 40-60 ml/kg/day

urination: 5-20 ml/kg/day

2

Define Dysuria

exhibiting pain on urination 

3

What three key elements can be assessed w/o evening handling an animal?

behavior

neurological elements

edema

4

Of the following structures, which cannot normally be transrectally palpated? 

kidney

ureter

bladder

urethra

ureter

right kidney in cattle

5

What is unique about the structure of bovine kidneys?

lobulated

 

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6

In which animal is urinary catheterization not possible?

male ruminants 

7

Why is CRE a better measurement than BUN for renal disease?

BUN is affected by many more factors than CRE

BUN is a byproduct of amino acid metabolism, and it can be altered by diet, hydration status, sweating, and liver disease as well as urea recycling by the rumen microbes

 

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8

What is the equation for Urea clearance?

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9

What is the change in serum electrolytes for acute vs. chronic kidney dz?

Acute: Na/Cl decrease, K/Mg increase

Chronic: horses- Ca increase P decrease

10

In a horse, what would a cloudy straw yellow colored urine indicate? What if this was observed in a ruminant?

What if the urine was brown?

normal for a horse- CaCo3 + mucus

pyuria (should be clear in ruminants)

Brown- most likely myoglobin

11

Under what circumstances would a ruminant likely not have an alkaline urine?

high protein diet

anorexic

neonate

12

What are the expected SG for iso/hypo/hypersthenuric urine?

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13

What urine SG would be expected in a suckling foal?

<1.008

14

A high producing dairy cow has a SG of 1.010. What does that indicate?

normal 

15

What is the formula for fractional clearance?

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16

What are the normal fractional clearances for Na/K/Cl/P?

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17

What is the formula for Urine GGT: Cr? 

What level indicated tubular damage?

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18

DDX for proteinuria?

glomerular dz

exudative process in ureter, bladder, urethra

contamination from the vulva

19

What two things can cause a false + for protein in the urine?

alkaline urine

Hemoglobin 

20

What is the renal threshold for LA for glucose?

150 mg/dl

21

If a patient presents w/ glucosuria and the following, what is the likely DDX?

normoglycemic

hyperglycemic

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22

What levels of WBC & RBC would be abnormal in the urine of a LA? Likely DDX?

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23

The kidney cortex should be more/less echogenic than the medulla?

more

24

How do you interpret the results of a water deprivation test?

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25

A young colt presents with...

DDX?

How would you diagnose it?

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Uroperitoneum 

rads, methylene blue fluorescein, contrast rads 

pre-renal azotemia: incr. K*, decr. NaCl

Peritoneal Cr >2x serum Cr

26

What type of fluids would you administer to a colt with uroperitoneum? What other tx would you consider?

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27

What is the order of most common stones to get in the UT in horses?

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28

What two factors contribute to nucleation? (w/ regards to urolithiasis)

nidus (UTI/urine stasis)

urine stasis

29

Two most common stone types in horses?

Calcium carbonate

Ca phosphate

30

What is the difference in presentation C.S. w/ a cystolith vs. nephrolith/ureterolith?

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31

Techniques to remove uroliths from mare?

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32

Techniques to remove uroliths from males horses?

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33

Post-SX tx for uroliths in horses?

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34

If you observe blood at end of urination vs. throughout, localize issue vs. at the beginning?

end- bladder/ proximal urethra

throughout- kidney/ureter

begin: distal urethra 

 

35

An arabian horse presents acute life threatening hematuria. DDX? TX?

Idiopathic Renal hematuria 

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36

TX for urethral tear in quarter horse gelding?

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37

Describe the causes of LMN urinary incontinence?

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38

How does sediment lead to a myogenic bladder in horses?

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39

How much water consumed & urine produce to classify as PD/PU in horse?

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40

Describe the water deprivation test and different DDX?

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41

What is the C.S. of a ruminant w/ Oak tox?

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42

Pathophys and clinical presentation of a ruminants w/ lepto?

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43

Clinical Findings of AKI in ruminants?

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44

C.S. & DX of pyelonephritis in ruminants?

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45

What is the areas of obstruction in ruminants w/ urolithiasis?

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46

What are the best steps for prevention in ruminants w/ urolithiasis

encourage H2O consumption

to avoid estrogenic growth stimulants 

delay castration 

 

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47

Classification of pre-renal azotemia in LA?

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48

Most common cause of AKI?

acute tubular necrosis

49

Continuum of pre-renal azotemia characterized by prolong hypotension &blood loss

ischemia (aka vasomotor) nephropathy 

50

How do AG abx affect renal fxn?

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51

Which is more toxic gentamycin or amikacin?

Why do you only want to once daily dose AG abx?

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52

Besides AG abx, what other anti-microbials are toxic to kidneys?

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53

How does NSAIDS cause AKI?

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54

What area of kidney do NSAIDS affect most?

medullary crest necrosis (low blood flow)

55

Name the two types of pigment nephropathies and their causes? What part of kidney is most affect?

CORTEX- incr. blood flow

pigments- vasocx-ischemia

tubular obstruction by protein casts

hydroxyl radicals 

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56

Horses are an incidental host for lepto except what serovar?

bratislava

57

Is Acute GN common in horses? What dz associated?

RARE

streptococcus or EIAv

58

What will we find on chem and urinalysis w/ AKI?

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59

What will be observed on U/S w/ AKI?

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60

TX for AKI?

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61

Types of CKD?

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62

T/F 
Correlation between the magnitude of azotemia and degree of the uremic syndrome is poor

True

63

What factors of CKI cause ventral edema?

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64

What is the BUN/CR ration for AKI vs. CKI?

AKI <10:1

CKI >10:1

65

electrolyte, AL, and chol changes w/ CKI?

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66

What does a CRE level of 5, 10-12, >15 mean for prognosis?

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67

TX/management of CKD?

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