Average water intake and urine production for LA?
water intake: 40-60 ml/kg/day
urination: 5-20 ml/kg/day
exhibiting pain on urination
What three key elements can be assessed w/o evening handling an animal?
Of the following structures, which cannot normally be transrectally palpated?
right kidney in cattle
What is unique about the structure of bovine kidneys?
In which animal is urinary catheterization not possible?
Why is CRE a better measurement than BUN for renal disease?
BUN is affected by many more factors than CRE
BUN is a byproduct of amino acid metabolism, and it can be altered by diet, hydration status, sweating, and liver disease as well as urea recycling by the rumen microbes
What is the equation for Urea clearance?
What is the change in serum electrolytes for acute vs. chronic kidney dz?
Acute: Na/Cl decrease, K/Mg increase
Chronic: horses- Ca increase P decrease
In a horse, what would a cloudy straw yellow colored urine indicate? What if this was observed in a ruminant?
What if the urine was brown?
normal for a horse- CaCo3 + mucus
pyuria (should be clear in ruminants)
Brown- most likely myoglobin
Under what circumstances would a ruminant likely not have an alkaline urine?
high protein diet
What are the expected SG for iso/hypo/hypersthenuric urine?
What urine SG would be expected in a suckling foal?
A high producing dairy cow has a SG of 1.010. What does that indicate?
What is the formula for fractional clearance?
What are the normal fractional clearances for Na/K/Cl/P?
What is the formula for Urine GGT: Cr?
What level indicated tubular damage?
DDX for proteinuria?
exudative process in ureter, bladder, urethra
contamination from the vulva
What two things can cause a false + for protein in the urine?
What is the renal threshold for LA for glucose?
If a patient presents w/ glucosuria and the following, what is the likely DDX?
What levels of WBC & RBC would be abnormal in the urine of a LA? Likely DDX?
The kidney cortex should be more/less echogenic than the medulla?
How do you interpret the results of a water deprivation test?
A young colt presents with...
How would you diagnose it?
rads, methylene blue fluorescein, contrast rads
pre-renal azotemia: incr. K*, decr. NaCl
Peritoneal Cr >2x serum Cr
What type of fluids would you administer to a colt with uroperitoneum? What other tx would you consider?
What is the order of most common stones to get in the UT in horses?
What two factors contribute to nucleation? (w/ regards to urolithiasis)
nidus (UTI/urine stasis)
Two most common stone types in horses?
What is the difference in presentation C.S. w/ a cystolith vs. nephrolith/ureterolith?
Techniques to remove uroliths from mare?
Techniques to remove uroliths from males horses?
Post-SX tx for uroliths in horses?
If you observe blood at end of urination vs. throughout, localize issue vs. at the beginning?
end- bladder/ proximal urethra
begin: distal urethra
An arabian horse presents acute life threatening hematuria. DDX? TX?
Idiopathic Renal hematuria
TX for urethral tear in quarter horse gelding?
Describe the causes of LMN urinary incontinence?
How does sediment lead to a myogenic bladder in horses?
How much water consumed & urine produce to classify as PD/PU in horse?
Describe the water deprivation test and different DDX?
What is the C.S. of a ruminant w/ Oak tox?
Pathophys and clinical presentation of a ruminants w/ lepto?
Clinical Findings of AKI in ruminants?
C.S. & DX of pyelonephritis in ruminants?
What is the areas of obstruction in ruminants w/ urolithiasis?
What are the best steps for prevention in ruminants w/ urolithiasis
encourage H2O consumption
to avoid estrogenic growth stimulants
Classification of pre-renal azotemia in LA?
Most common cause of AKI?
acute tubular necrosis
Continuum of pre-renal azotemia characterized by prolong hypotension &blood loss
ischemia (aka vasomotor) nephropathy
How do AG abx affect renal fxn?
Which is more toxic gentamycin or amikacin?
Why do you only want to once daily dose AG abx?
Besides AG abx, what other anti-microbials are toxic to kidneys?
How does NSAIDS cause AKI?
What area of kidney do NSAIDS affect most?
medullary crest necrosis (low blood flow)
Name the two types of pigment nephropathies and their causes? What part of kidney is most affect?
CORTEX- incr. blood flow
tubular obstruction by protein casts
Horses are an incidental host for lepto except what serovar?
Is Acute GN common in horses? What dz associated?
streptococcus or EIAv
What will we find on chem and urinalysis w/ AKI?
What will be observed on U/S w/ AKI?
TX for AKI?
Types of CKD?
Correlation between the magnitude of azotemia and degree of the uremic syndrome is poor
What factors of CKI cause ventral edema?
What is the BUN/CR ration for AKI vs. CKI?
electrolyte, AL, and chol changes w/ CKI?
What does a CRE level of 5, 10-12, >15 mean for prognosis?
TX/management of CKD?