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Flashcards in Lab 1 Deck (40):
1

What are the major structures in the rat?

Lungs
Heart & thymus gland
Oesophagus
Stomach
Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum)
Pancreas
Liver
Spleen
Large intestine
Caecum
Colon
Rectum
Anus
Kidneys and adrenal glands
Bladder
Reproductive organs
Mouth: Hard and soft palate, teeth, glottis, oesophageal opening, nasal cavities, salivary glands, trachea and pharynx

2

What is the name of the cavity housing the heart?

Pericardial

3

What is the name of the cavities housing the lungs?

Left and right pleural

4

What is the name of the cavity housing all of the organs below the diaphragm?

Abdominal

5

What is the name of the cavity housing all of the organs above the diaphragm?

Thoracic

6

What is the name of the cavity containing the intestine?

Peritoneal

7

What are the two membranes of the peritoneal cavity, and where are they found?

The visceral peritoneum (covers the intestine) and the parietal peritoneum (lines the abdominal wall)

8

What suspends the intestine in the rat?

A double layer of peritoneum called a mesentery, between the visceral and parietal peritonea.

9

What is the difference between the pericardium of the rat vs. that of the human?

The human pericardium is much more fibrous and strong

10

What structure separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?

The diaphragm

11

What is, where is, and what does mesentery tissue do?

Mesentery is a double layer of peritoneal membrane, located in the peritoneal cavity, which suspends the intestine. It also contains blood vessels, which supply and drain the intestinal wall.

12

Which cavity is the oesophagus found in?

Mainly thoracic, but a part is in the abdominal cavity

13

What cavity is the heart found in?

Pericardial, in the thoracic

14

What cavity is the thymus found in?

thoracic

15

What cavities are the lungs found in?

Pleural, in the thoracic

16

What cavity is the trachea found in?

Thoracic

17

What cavity is the stomach found in?

Peritoneal, in the abdominal

18

What cavity is the small intestine found in?

Peritoneal, in the abdominal

19

What cavity is the liver found in?

Peritoneal, in the abdominal

20

What cavity is the pancreas found in?

Peritoneal, in the abdominal

21

What cavity is the spleen found in?

Peritoneal, in the abdominal

22

What cavity is the colon and caecum found in?

Peritoneal, in the abdominal

23

What cavity are the kidneys found in?

Abdominal

24

What cavity is the bladder found in?

Abdominal

25

What is a serous membrane, and where are they found?

They are mesothelial membranes which form serous fluid, filling up the space between visceral and parietal membranes.
They include: peritoneal, pleural and pericardial membranes

26

What are organs not involved in the digestive system?

Lungs, heart, thymus, spleen, kidneys, bladder

27

What is the gland producing both digestive enzymes and hormones in the rat?

The pancreas

28

What is the largest gland in the body?

Liver

29

What structures are found in the human, but not the rat?

Gall bladder
Shape of the uterus (in rats, the fallopian tubes do not curl- the internal genitalia is shaped like a Y)
Single jaw bone- in rats, it is in two pieces

30

What two organs secrete products directly into the duodenum in the rat?

Liver
Pancreas

31

Where is bile produced in the rat?

Liver

32

What are the differences between rat and human internal female genitalia?

Instead of a uterus, the rat has two uterine horns in a Y shape, extending up to each ovary, connected by an oviduct. Rat embryos can develop all along these tubular horns, allowing large litters to develop

33

What are the two components of the rat stomach, and their functions?

Anterior and lateral stomach: Fairly transparent, used for food storage, so glandless, with stratified squamous epithelium
Pyloric region: glandular and opaque. Used for digestion of food into chyme

34

Where are digestive contents dehydrated and water reabsorbed?

Large intestine

35

What are the regions of the small intestine? from stomach to large intestine

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

36

What is the path of nutrient laden blood from the small intestine?

Blood vessels in the mesentery drain the small intestine, carrying blood to the intestinal wall, where they merge into the hepatic portal vein, leading to the liver and then into the right atrium.

37

How is the flow of chyme controlled?

The pyloric sphincter

38

What structures are under partial voluntary control?

Anus

39

Where is the epiglottis and what is its function?

It is located on the ventral edge of the trachea, and flaps over the trachea to allow food and drink to be swallowed into the oesophagus rather than the trachea

40

Which is ventral: the trachea or the oesophagus?

The trachea.