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Biology 151/151L > Lab Exam 2 review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Exam 2 review Deck (43)
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1

gene

unit of heredity on a chromosome

2

homozygous

when the paired alleles are identical

3

heterozygous

when the paired alleles are different

4

codominance

both alleles contribute to the phenotype of a heterozygote

5

antigens

compounds of the surfaces of their red blood cells

6

autosomes

chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes

7

pedigree

a consistent graphical presentation of matings and offspring over multiple generations for a particular trait

8

evolution

describes genetic change in populations

9

mutations

changes in the genetic messages of a cell

10

fitness

the tendency to produce more offspring than competing individuals

11

natural selection

a major force that guides genetic change while producing adaptions and forming new species

12

frequency

the proportion of individuals in a certain category relative to the total number of individuals considered

13

Hardy- Weinberg Principle

enables us to calculate and predict allelic and genotypic frequencies

14

Hardy-Weinberg equations
p= frequency of dominant allele
q= frequency of recessive allele

p+q=1
p^2+2pq+q^2=1

15

selection

the differential reproduction of phenotypes

16

selection pressures

factors such as temperatures and predation that affect organisms and result in selective reproduction of phenotypes

17

Volvocine line

The volvocine line of algae is a group of modern species that reflects an easily recognized sequence of changes as their common ancestors evolved.

18

population

a group of organisms of the same species living and reproducing together

19

species

a group of organisms that can reproduce with each other but are reproductively incompatible with other organisms

20

biotic potential

maximal reproductive capacity if a given unlimited resources

21

limiting factors

ex. disease, the presence of predators, competition for resources, and lack of food

22

carrying capacity

occurs when the birth rate equals the death rate of the ecosystem

23

environmental resistance

includes factors such as disease, accumulation of waste products, and lack of food

24

diploid

refers to a nucleus with two of each type of chromosome

25

cleavage furrow

Cytokinesis includes formation of a cleavage furrow that begins on the periphery of the cell, pinches inward, and eventually divides the cytoplasm into two cells.

26

homologous

the two chromosomes of a pair

27

loci

each homologue of a pair has the same sites, or loci, for the same genes, although the homologues may carry different alleles at homologous loci.

28

haploid

a nucleus, such as that in a gamete, with only one chromosome of each homologous pair is haploid

29

prophase I

homologous chromosomes cross over

30

prophase II

sister chromatids condense