lab kidneys Flashcards Preview

KIDNEYS > lab kidneys > Flashcards

Flashcards in lab kidneys Deck (18):
1

what structures lie close to the superior poles of the kidneys

adrenal gland / the diaphragm / 12th rib

2

the left kidney is slightly higher up than the right , what else is near the left kidney

Spleen, stomach, and through the diaphragm, the left kidney is also closely related to the 11th rib and pleura

3

what structure is related to the medial borders of the kidneys

Psoas major. On the right side, the inferior vena cava, renal vessels and ureter are close by. On the left, there is the adrenal gland, renal and suprarenal vessels and ureter.

4

what structures are related to the inferolateral portion of the kidney

Quadratus lumborum and transversus abdominis and the 1st lumbar nerve is related to the inferolateral portion.

5

c) If the ureter was found intra-operatively, how would you differentiate it from a blood vessel?

It undergoes peristalsis, which can be seen intra-operatively

6

psoas major. What does this muscle do?

Flexion of the hip, flexes and laterally rotates thigh.

7

what do medullary rays consist of

collecting ducts draining the nephron

8

what type of epithelium forms bowmans capsule

simple squamous , becoming cuboidal at the PCT

9

WHAT IS THE MACULA DENSA

is a patch of densely-packed epithelial cell nuclei along the distal convoluted tubule, adjacent to the afferent arteriole at the vascular pole of the corpuscle from which the tubule arose. It may function as a sensor for sodium and/or chloride concentration.

10

WHAT IS BOWMANS SPACE

space within bowmans capsule surrounding the loops and lobules of the glomerulus . it is the spadce in which the glomerular filtrate collects as it leaves the capillaries through the filtration membrane .

11

what is the incidence of a horseshoe kidney. what are the funtional affects

1:500
maybe reflux , tumors rarely- Wilm's tumour

12

what are the main components of the male urethra

prostatic
membranous
spongy

13

hydrogen takes several forms in the urine

free H+
attached to phosphate
attached to ammonia

14

how to know if metabolic acidosis is due to ingestion of acid or loss of bicarbonate

If the cause of metabolic acidosis is
loss of bicarbonate or primary failure of
the nephrons to generate bicarbonate
then chloride is passively re-absorbed
in nephron with each sodium to
maintain electroneutrality.
If the cause of metabolic acidosis is
Increased acid ingestion or increased
acid production then there is a rise in
the anion gap because there is a new
unmeasured anion which is in solution
with (measured) cations

15

if there is a normal anion gap in metabloc acidosis

due to loss bicarbonate reabsorption/ nephron disoprder

16

if there is a raised anion gap in metabolic acidosis

it is due to ingestion of increased acid /increased acid production

17

increased acid ingestion

Salicylate
Methanol
Ethylene glycol
Toluene

18

increased acid production

lactic acid
ketoacidosis acids