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Flashcards in Lab Practical Deck (55)
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1
Q
A

Plantae

(Chlorophyta/Green Algae)

Volvox

  • Autotroph/Filled w/ chlorophyl
  • Closest living relative to land plants
  • Colonly filled with tiney algae w/ tiny redspot
  • have two flagella
  • move in one direction to or from light
  • Vegetetative Cells
  • Daughter colony (asexual reproduction)
  • Zygotes (sexual reproduction)
  • Movement via cilia
2
Q
A

Plantae - plants

Chlorophyta/Green Algae

Volvox

  • Vegetative Cells
  • Daughter colony (asexual)
  • zygotes (sexual reproduction)
  • Movement via cilia
3
Q
A

Plantae - Plants

Volvox

(Green Algae/Chlorophyta)

  • vegetative cells
  • daughter colony (asexual reproduction)
  • zygotes (sexual reproduction)
  • Autotroph
  • Colonial
  • No Cell Wall
  • Cilia movement
4
Q
A

Plantae - plant

(Green Algae/Chlorophyta)

Spirogyra

  • Cloroplast are in a spiral
  • Autotroph
  • Multicellular
  • Cell Wall
  • no movement
  • no feeding
  • Zygotes
5
Q
A

Stramenopila - “hairy flagella”

(Water Mold/Oomycete)

Saprolegnia

Gametes

  • Male - antherida
  • Female - oogonia
  • Hyphase
  • Causes “itch”
  • Heterotroh
  • Multicellular
  • Cell Wall
  • no special movement
6
Q
A

Alveolata -“alveoli” on ther cell membranes

(Ciliates)

Paramecium

  • macronucleus- physiological processes
  • micronucleus- sexual reproduction
  • cilia (movement)
  • pellicle
  • oral groove - regulate by pulling water in and out of body (live in wide range of environments by regulating water inside body) –> mouth
  • heterotroph
  • contractile vacuole- osmoregulation
  • sexual reproduction via conjugation
  • unicellular
  • no cell wall
7
Q
A

Plante

(Green Algae/Chlorophyta)

Oedogonium

  • oogonium (female)
  • antheridium (male)
  • forms zygote when fuse
  • Autotroph
  • Multicellular
  • Cell Wall
  • No special movement
8
Q
A

Rhizaria -“root-like” pseudopods

(Foraminifera)

Forams

  • ameoboid body inside shell
  • calciferous shell (shell made from cacium carbonate)
  • very abundant, when die form thick layer on ocean floor
  • Heterotroph
  • Unicellular
  • Engulfs Food
  • No Cell Wall
  • pseudopods movement
9
Q
A

Excavata -“excavated” feeding groove on outside of cells

(Euglenid)

Euglena

  • Pellicle
  • Chloroplast (autotroph/photosynthesis)
  • Eyespot
  • Heterotroph/Autotroph
  • Unicellular
  • No Cell Wall
  • Flagella movement
  • Engulfs Food
10
Q
A

Stramenopila -“Hairy Flagella”

(Diatoms)

  • Shell made from cilica (sharp/glass like)
  • Useful for abbrasives materials
  • Can be used to treat fleas or other insects
  • Used in toothpaste
  • Can slice things in tiny peices
  • Have ameoboid body
  • Autotrophic
  • Multicellular
  • Cell Wall (silica)
  • Jet Propulsion movement
11
Q
A

Amoebozoa - move with “amoeboid” motion

(Lobose amoebae)

Amoeba

  • No Cell Wall
  • Amoeboid movement (pseudopodia)
  • Shoots out pseudopodia and pulls body
  • engulfs food by surrounding it
  • heterotroph
  • Unicellular
12
Q
A

Alveolata - move with “amoeboid” motion

(Dinoflagellates)

Ceratium

  • two flagella - moves in 3 demensions
  • produces toxins likely to cause food poisoning
  • “armored” (theca) and “naked” - cell walls are armoured plates called theca
  • Autotroph
  • Unicellular
  • Cell Wall
13
Q
A

Amoebozoa

(Plasmodial slime mold)

Physarum

  • plasmodium for locomotion
  • sporangia (spore producing structures for reproduction)
  • No Cell Wall
14
Q
A

Excavata - “excavated” feeding groove on outside of cells

(Parabasilid)

Trichonympha

  • cellulase enzyme (breaks down cellulose so termite can use)
  • symbiotic relationships
  • w/termites
  • w/bacteria
  • No Cell Wall
  • flagella movement
15
Q
A

Excavata: “excavated” feeding groove on outside of cells
(Euglenid)
Euglena

  • pellicle
  • chloroplasts
  • eyespot
  • Autotroph & Heterotroph
  • Unicellular
  • Flagella Movement
  • Engulf Food
  • No Cell Wall
16
Q
A

Plantae

(Red Algae/Rhodophyta)

Polysiphonia

  • Agar & carageenan
  • phycoerythrin (pigement that photosynthezies)
  • Autotroph
  • multicellular
  • cell wall
  • commercially & biologically important
  • no special movement
17
Q
A

Stramenopila - “hairy flagella”

(Brown Algae/Phaeophyta)

Postelsia “Sea Palm”

  • Autotroph
  • Multicellular
  • Cell Wall
  • Holdfast (hold fast in place, attached to bottom of ocean)
  • Stripe (to reach surface so blade can get energy to photosynthesize)
  • Blade
  • no special movement
18
Q
A

Stramenpolia - “hairy flagella”

(Brown Algae/Phaeophyta)

Saragassum

  • autotroph
  • Multicellular
  • Cell Wall
  • Airbladders ( to keep boyount)
  • stripe (to reach surface for blade)
  • Holdfast (to hold in place at bottom of ocean)
  • no special movement
19
Q

Compare & Contrast the Domains

A
20
Q

Compare & Contrast Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes

A

Prokaryotes

  • Lack membrane bound organelles
  • No nuclear membrane
  • Circular genome
  • Small (1/10 size of Eukaryotes)
  • Unicellular (but can form colonies)
  • 70S ribosome for protein synthesis

Eukaryotes

  • Membrane bound organelles
  • Nuclear envelope
  • Non-circular genome
  • Large (10x larger than Prokaryotes)
  • Unicellular and multi-cellular
  • 80S ribosome for protein synthes
21
Q

Eubacteria

A

Eubacteria

  • “True” Bacteria
  • Peptidoglycan in cell wall (unique to this domain)
  • Penicillin
22
Q

Give examples of Eubacteria

A

Gram positive bacteria
Gram negative bacteria
Cyanobacteria

23
Q

Which is Gram Positive and Gram Negative

A

+ Thick layer of peptidoglycan

(retains crystal violet stain & looks purple)

- Thin layer of peptidoglycan

(covered by outher membrane)

24
Q

What is Cyanobacteria?

A

Blue-green Algae
Gram negative bacteria
Photosynthetic (phycobilin pigments)
Single cells, filaments, colonies

25
Q

What is cyanobacteria responsible for?

A

oxygen rich atmospher

nitrogen fixation

26
Q

What is this?

A

Oscillatoria spp.

  • A type of cynobacteria
  • Found in most aquactic habitats
  • looks like a book shelf
27
Q

What is this?

A

Merismopedia spp.

  • Cynobacteria
  • flattened colonies of cells
  • usually allined in gropus of four
  • looks like a blanket
28
Q

What is this?

A

Gleocapspa

  • Nitrogen fixation with out heterocyst
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Gelaantinous sheath
29
Q

What is this?

A

Spirulina

  • looks like coiled ropes
30
Q

What is this?

A

Anabaena spp.

Heterocyst

  • clear, round/oval
  • N fixation (means of taking out of atmospher into something we can use)
  • need nitrogen for protein synthesis

Akinete

  • larger, round/oval
  • Densely packed w/sporelike reproductive cells

Barrel shaped cells

  • Love nitrogen, but can explode w/ to much. Blue/green algae, have phycobilin pigment, helps organism use sunlight and turn into energy
  • responsible for oxygen, life on earth
  • only a few are toxic (St. Johns River)
31
Q

What is the relationship between azolla “water fern” and anabaena?

A

Photosynthetic organisms changed the early conditions on planet earth with their production of oxygen through photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are Gram negative photoautotrophs and use specialized red, blue and purple pigments called phycobilins to convert light energy. Living as colonies in filaments surrounded by sheaths or spherical colonies encapsulated with gelatinous matrix, cyanobacteria are classified in the Domain Bacteria though many of them have the ability to live under extreme conditions. Many cyanobacteria are able to fix nitrogen using heterocysts. During taxing environmental conditions, cyanobacteria are able to produce akinetes which enable their genome to be dormant and protected within a case-like spore until conditions are hospitable again.

32
Q

What is the relationship was clover & rhizobium?

A

A family of plants known as legumes has a symbiotic relationship with a genus of bacteria known as Rhizobium. Rhizobium invade the root cells of a legume and form a nodule. In the nodule the bacteria live and convert N2 by a process called nitrogen fixation into the usable form NH3. The legume in turn supplies the Rhizobium with sugar produced by photosynthesis.

33
Q

What is this?

A
34
Q

What is this?

A
35
Q

What is this?

A
36
Q

What is this?

A

A chain of cocci = streptococci

A cluster of cocci = staphylococci

37
Q

What is this?

A

Anabaena

38
Q

What is this?

A

Spirulina

39
Q

What is this?

A

Gloeocapsa

40
Q

What is this?

A

Bacillus

41
Q

What is the purpose of heat fixation during the staining procedure?

A
  • It denatures the protiens on the surface of the bacteria causing them to be sticky.
  • It prevents the bacteria from washing off the slide during staining.
  • Helps the cells adhere to the slide so that they can be stained. Heat Fixation in Microbiology is normally used for bacteria.
42
Q

How do cyanobacteria differ from other bacteria?

A
  • cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll which means they can photosynthesize and make their own food
  • Cyanobacteria are relatives of the bacteria, not eukaryotes, and it is only the chloroplast in eukaryotic algae to which the cyanobacteria are related.
  • Other types of bacteria are chemotrophs like rizobacteria using nitrogen oxidation as an energy source. These are called Nitrosomonas and are autotrophic but not photoautotrophs like cyanobacteria.
  • The rest of the bacteria are heterotrophs that consume energy autotrophs have fixed. These are osmotrophs. They secrete digestive enzymes onto the nutrient source then absorb what they need.
43
Q

What is a silique? Why would this be used as an indicator of allelopathy?

A

A silique is a long seed vessel or a pod of plants. Weighing each pod could be used as a measure of growth. If there is a lower weight, that could indicate minimal growth which could be an indicator of allelopathy.

44
Q

What are the steps in the scientific method?

A
  1. Define a problem (Observations)
  2. Form a hypothesis
  3. Experimentation
  4. Analzye & Form Conclusion
  5. Communicate Results
45
Q

What is a null hypothesis?

A

The null hypothesis predicts what will happen if there is no difference between all of the groups or treatments within an experiment.

46
Q

Give an example of null hypothesis

A
  1. Ex: There will be no difference in fitness between descendants and ancestral populations
  2. Ex: There is no difference between blood type
47
Q

What is an independent variable?

A

Independent variable is an item in the experiment that is tested or manipulated.

48
Q

Give examples of independent variable?

A
  1. Examples may include testing conditions such as temperature, time, and lighting.
  2. Another example might include the exposure of a test subject to a particular substance, chemical, or treatment.
49
Q

What is dependent variable?

A

Dependent variables involve the response to changes in the independent variable. It is the component of the experiment that is observed, measured, or counted.

50
Q

Give an example of a dependent variable?

A

Examples may include color changes, behaviors, reaction times, or measurements of particular body functions such breathing and blood pressure.

51
Q

What are controlled variables?

A

Controlled variables conditions under which the independent variable is tested must be standardized or made constant.

52
Q

What is the experimental group?

A

Experimental group is composed of subjects that are exposed to the same independent variable.

53
Q

What are control groups?

A

Control group subjects are exposed to all of the same conditions (controlled variables) as they are in the experimental group(s) except for the independent variable.

54
Q

What are the condtions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to occur?

A
  1. No net mutation must take place (no spontaneous changes to alleles).
  2. Mating occurs randomly so each organism has an equal chance of mating.
  3. The size of the population is very large.
  4. No migration occurs (no movement of genes in and out of the population).
  5. No selection occurs.
55
Q

What is the purpose and general format for each section of a reserach article?

A
  1. Materials & Methods - So others can replicate your experiment
  2. Results - Summary of the findings from the experiment
  3. Introduction -Familiarize readers with: (Background information & Purpose of the research)
  4. Discussion - Explain and interpret the results
  5. Abstract -Quick reference
    250 words or less
    Summarize each section
    Intro to the purpose of the research (1-2 sentences)
    Brief description of the materials/methods (1-2 sentences)
    Overall results (1-2 sentences)
    Brief conclusion (1-2 sentences)
  6. References - Give credit