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Flashcards in Lab Values Deck (45):
1

HbA1c

<5.7% normal
5.7-6.4% prediabetes
>6.5% Types 2 diabetes

Indicates overall glucose control for previous 120 days

2

Hematocrit

*altitude dependent
Men: 42-50%
Women: 37-47%
Prego: >33
Relative volume of plasma to RBC

High: dehydration, high altitudes polycythemia

Low: volume excess, anemia, hemorrhage

3

Hemoglobin

*altitude dependent
Men: 14-18 g/dL
Women: 12-16 g/dL

High: COPD, high altitudes, polycythemia

Low: anemia, hemorrhage, slight decrease during pregnancy

4

Albumin

3.5-5.0 g/dL

High: dehydration

Low: inflammation, shock, malnutrition

5

arterial pH

7.35-7.45

High: alkalosis
Low: acidosis

6

Calcium (total)

9-10.5 mg/dL

High: acute osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, multiple myeloma

Low: Acute pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism, liver disease, malabsorption syndrome, renal failure, vitamin D deficiency

7

Chloride

96-106 mEq/L

High: Metabolic acidosis, respiratory
alkalosis, corticosteroid
therapy, uremia

Low: Addison’s disease, diarrhea,
metabolic alkalosis, respiratory
acidosis, vomiting

8

Cholesterol

<200 mg/dL

High: Biliary obstruction,
hypothyroidism, idiopathic
hypercholesterolemia, renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes

Low: Extensive liver disease,
hyperthyroidism, malnutrition,
corticosteroid therapy

9

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs)

Male: >45 mg/dL
Female: >55 mg/dL

10

Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

Recommended: <130 mg/dL

Moderate risk for CAD: 130-159 mg/dL

High risk for CAD: >160 mg/dL

11

Creatinine

Male: 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Female: 0.5-1.0

High: severe renal disease

12

Glucose (fasting)

70-110 mg/dL

High: Acute stress, Cushing disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, pancreatic
insufficiency

Low: Addison’s disease, hepatic disease, hypothyroidism, insulin overdosage, pancreatic tumor, pituitary hypofunction

13

Magnesium

1.5-2.5 mEq/L

High: Addison’s disease,
hypothyroidism, renal failure

Low: Chronic alcoholism, severe
malabsorption

14

Phosphorus (phosphate)

2.4-4.4 mg/dL

High: Healing fractures, hypoparathyroidism, renal disease, vitamin D intoxication

Low: Diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency

15

Potassium

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

High: Addison’s disease, diabetic
ketosis, massive tissue
destruction, renal failure

Low: Cushing syndrome, diarrhea (severe), diuretic therapy, gastrointestinal fistula, pyloric obstruction, starvation, vomiting

16

Sodium

135-145 mEq/L

High: Dehydration, impaired renal
function, primary
aldosteronism, corticosteroid
therapy

Low: Addison’s disease, diabetic
ketoacidosis, diuretic therapy,
excessive loss from GI tract,
excessive perspiration, water
intoxication

17

Testosterone

Male: 280-1100 ng/dL
Female: 15-70 ng/dL

18

Triglycerides

<150 mg/dL

High: diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, liver disease

Low: malnutrition

19

Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

12-20 mg/dL

High: impaired renal function, CHF, dehydration, shock, stress, excessive protein intake/catabolism

Low: fluid overload, malnutrition, severe liver disease, SIADH

20

Thrombocytes
(Platelets)

150,000-400,000/uL

High: Acute infections, chronic granulocytic
leukemia, chronic pancreatitis,
cirrhosis, collagen disorders,
polycythemia, postsplenectomy

Low: Acute leukemia, DIC,
thrombocytopenic
purpura

21

Leukocytes
(WBC)

4,000-11,000/uL

High: Acute leukemia, DIC,
thrombocytopenic
purpura, final month pregnancy/labor

Low: Aplastic anemia, side
effects of chemotherapy
and irradiation

22

Erythrocytes
(RBC million/mm^3)

*altitude dependent
Male: 4.7-6.1

Female: 4.2-5.4

High: Dehydration, high altitudes,
polycythemia vera

Low: Anemia, leukemia, posthemorrhage

23

*urine chemistry*

Specific Gravity

*urine chemistry*

Specific Gravity: 1.003-1.030

High: Albuminuria, dehydration,
glycosuria

Low: Diabetes insipidus

24

*urine chemistry*

pH
Ketone Bodies
Glucose
Hemoglobin
Bilirubin
Protein (dipstick)

*urine chemistry*
NORMAL VALUES/RESULTS

pH: 4.0-8.0
H: Diabetes insipidus
L: resp or meta acidosis

Ketone Bodies: 20-50 mg/day
H: diabetes mellitus, starvation, dehydration

Glucose: negative
(+):diabetes mellitus, pituitary disorders

Hemoglobin: negative
(+): Extensive burns,
glomerulonephritis, hemolytic
anemias, hemolytic
transfusion reaction

Bilirubin: negative
(+): liver disorders

Protein (dipstick): 0-trace
(+): Extensive burns,
glomerulonephritis, hemolytic
anemias, hemolytic
transfusion reaction

25

Bilirubin

Total: 0.3-1
Indirect: 0.2-0.8
Direct: 0.1-0.3

26

Arterial Blood Gases:
pH
PCO2
PO2
HCO3
O2 sat

pH: 7.35-7.45
PCO2: 35-45 mm Hg
PO2: 80-100 mm Hg
HCO3: 22-26 mEq/L
O2 Sat: 95-100%

27

Blood Pressure

<120/80

28

Temperature

Oral: 97-99.6 (36.4-37.6 C)
Avg: 98.6 (37 C)

Fever: 100.4 (38 C) and up

29

Neutrophil Count

2200-7700
<500=severe neutropenia

30

INR (no anti platelet therapy)

0.75-1.25

31

INR (with anti platelet therapy)

2.0-3.0

32

Digoxin

0.5-2 ng/mL

>2.0 critical

33

PT

11-16 seconds

34

aPTT (same as PTT)

20-36 seconds

35

Lithium

0.6-1.2 mEq/L

36

Ammonia

15-45 mcg/dL

37

ALT-SGPT

4-36 U/L

38

ALT-SGOT

0-35 U/L

39

Total Protein

6.4-8.3 g/dL

40

ESR

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Men: 0-10 mm/hr
Women: 0-20 mm/hr

41

Blood uric acid levels

Male: 4.0-7.0 mg/dL

Female: 2.5-6.0 mg/dL

High in gout, uric acid calculi, and tumor lysis syndrome

42

Pulmonary artery wedge pressure

PAWP
6-12 mmHg

Left atrial pressure estimate

43

Mean arterial pressure

MAP

70-110 mmHg
60=Minimum for organ perfusion

SBP + 2(DBP)/3

BP=83/50

83+2(50)/3=61

44

BNP

brain (b-type) natriuretic peptide

<100 pg/mL

*released in response to ventricular stretch and wall tension when cardiac filling pressures elevated

45

Ankle-brachial pressure index

Ratio of BP at ankle to the BP in upper arm.

0.9-1.3

0.41-0.90 = mild/moderate PAD

<0.4=severe PAD