Number one cause in dairy cattle is phosphorus deficiency. Leads to fragile red blood cells and usually in cows on a lot of grass
Post partum hemoglobinuria
Caused by bovine coronavirus. Wild ruminants are reservoirs for the virus. 2-6 year old animals are at highest risk. Diagnosis by detection of virus with ELISA or RT-PCR. Samples must be collected 1-3 days of onset of diarrhea. Treat with fluids
Treatment for anaplasma
Oxytetracycline, before replicative stage occurs in the cow so during the incubation stage
May occur in young calves when 1st weaned. Produced hypotonicity and leads to intravascular hemolysis
Assosicated with lupine in western australia. Causes liver damage
Test for digestion of carbohydrates in rumen fluid
Gluose fermentation test
Outcome of infection with BVD in pregnant animal depends upon
Stage of gestation Strain of BVDV Immune status of the cow
Dairy. Good for cheese
Caused by feeding of rough fibrous feed during droughts or feeding machine made wheat. No feces, dehydration, anorexia, abdominal distension. Usually found on exploratory rumentomy.
Dose dependent infection, dependent of life cycle of parasite. Causes bloody diarrhea
Coccidiosis Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii
Monocytes 1-5% in bovine means
Attaches to villous enterocytes, decreases surface area and causes malabsoptive diarrhea. Resolution in 2 days
Second most common deficiency of cattle. Secondary to molybdenum excess or from soil/plants
Primary impaction due to dry feed with limited water. Secondary impaction due to disturbances in motility or pyloric outflow failure. Results from TRP, Right displaced abomasum
Type III Vagal indigestion (Abomasal obstruction)
Purpose of fungus in the rumen
Aids bacteria in cellulose digestion.
NSAID that can be used as endotoxemic ridding effect in calves
NSAID of propionic acid class. Potent PGE2 inhibitor. Short half life and requires multiple doses
Treatment for calf e.coli
Remove organism from GI tract- Amoxicillin Correct dehydration Prevention with vaccine
Highly restricted class of antibiotics. ELDU is forbidden. Bactericidal. Concentration dependent. Inhibits bacterial DNA replication and transcription by binding the A subunit of DNA gyrase.
Affects older animals more severely. Calves can be carriers. Caused by rickettsial organism. Invades margin of RBCs. Transmitted by ticks and horse flies. Cattle and sheep are susceptible. Will have milk drop, icterus, aggression. First sign is presence of organism in RBCs.
Anaplasmosis A. marginale or A. caudatum
Produced by fungi. Grows on corn, peanuts, and cotton. Causes hepatic failure.
Physiological signs of pain
Increased respiration Increased HR Increased Body temperature Increased pupil size
Occur during periparturient period. Associated with LDAs, coliform mastitis, and metritis. Not severely affected, causes reduced food intake and milk production. Diagnosis only at necropsy
Type I abomasal ulcers.
Non perforating, non bleeding
Seen months after pasture exposure. Caused by simultaneous emergence of arrested larvae. Cattle appear normal and then death in 1-2 weeks
Type II ostertagia
Pathogenesis of rumen acidosis
Loss of body water causes dehydration contributing to acidosis. Lactic acid is absorbed from rumen as well as from small intestine and profound lactic acid develops.
Lethal at 0.3% BW. Glycoside toxin carboxyatractyloside causes severe hypoglycemia and massive hepatic necrosis. Young plants more toxic.
Only NSAID approved for use in the US for cattle and swine. Labeled for fever/inflammation associated with respiratory disease, mastitis, and endotoxemia.
Restrictions for B lactams
Follow label for aminopenicillins. ELDY is permitted as long as AMDUCA is followed
Results from other disease. Chronic. Rumination is absent, rumen underfilled, fecal production is depressed, might have diarrhea
Secondary rumen indigestion
Asymmetric abdominal distension most pronounced in the left paralumbar fossa. Increased HR and RR. Acute form can cause death in 30 min to 4 hours
Diarrhea with damage to villous epithelium and loss of enterocytes leading to shortening of the villi because loss is faster than replacement. Results in decreased suface area and enterocytes lost are mature and important. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa are most commonly involved with this type of diarrhea
Treatment for severe cases of SARA
Successful tx limited.
Empty rumen by oral lavage/rumenotomy.
Management for frothy bloat
Polxalene (top dressing)
Least common displaced abomasum. 180 degree torsion with or without volvulus. Rotation along mesenteric axis. Outflow obstruction and schema if arteries obstructed.
Right displaced abomasum
Toxin: Robin. New growth is most toxic
Fluoroquinolone used in swine
Azalides consist of
Azithromycin, Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin, Tildipirosin
Caused by oral exposure to fecal coliforms that lead to colonization of the gut. 80% attachment occurs. Signs include secretory diarrhea and dehydration.
Enterotoxigenic E. Coli
Time dependent antibiotics. Bactericidal. Binds to penicillin binding proteins, Penems cause cell lysis. Poor intracellular activity
Italian. Beef selected for myostatin gene
Causes of elevated rumen fluid chloride
Obstruction of intestinal flow
Restrictions for Florfenicol
Extra label use is permitted. Prolonged withdrawal for different than labeled production class.
If non segmented neutrophils 0% seen on bovine WBC count
Indicates Acute overwhelming infection
A carcass with violative residues is condemned by
Antibiotic selection has been proven to be based on
Production class and organ system affected
Instrument used to treat esophageal obstructions
Developmental stage for anaplasmosis lasts 4-9 days and
Most signs are present, lasts 3 weeks to 3 months, carrier state
Diagnosis for anaplasma
Complement fixation test
Inhibits COX isoenzymes lowering prostaglandin production from arachadonic acid.
Number one risk factor for calve diarrhea
Colostrum deficiency. Failure of passive transfer.
Mostly acquired from systemic infection and end up with valvular vegetative endocarditis. Usually right side of heart.
Valvular heart disease
Wooden tongue. Painful nodular lesions involving the soft tissues and oral cavity leading to swelling at the base of tongue. Examine pus for sulfar granules.
Hepatotoxin found in plants. Cumulative and progressive. Problems 1-5 months after ingestion. Causes in-utero infections. Alkaloids damage hepatocytes leading to fibrosis. Neuro and liver signs
Reduction in frequency or strength of primary contraction. Caused by reduction in excitatory drive to gastric center, increase in inhibitory inputs, and weakness of the motor pathway.
Hypomotlity of the primary mixing cycle
Provides large surface area for the absorption of VFAs, electrolytes, and water. Reduces feed particles. Located toward the right of the median plane and opposing the 7th and 11th ribs
Bactericidal, concentration depended. Primarily aerobic Gram -. Highly water soluble. Oral absorption is poor after gut closure. Irreversibly binds to the 30s ribosome. Accumulates in lysosomes and mitochondria. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.
Used in swine. Avoid ruminants and horses because causes Clostridial overgrowth. Inhibits protein synthesis by binding the 50s ribosome. Used for mycoplasma pneumonias and bacterial arthritis. Can result in swelling of the anus
Animals eating 5% or more for over 30 days will die. Invasive weed. Causes pyrrolizidine toxicity
Oocyte shedding occurs as early as 3 days of age and peaks at 2 weeks. Can continue to occur if environment contaminated. Severe villous atrophy and malabsorptive diarrhea.
Best drug use for pain.
Multimodal drug use. Target acute pain with quick acting, short duration. Follow with long acting NSAIDs, opioids, local, NMDA receptor, a2 agonists.
Glycoproteins that bind to cell receptors causing inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death. Most toxic of known plant compounds. Concentrated in seeds and are released following chewing the seed. Cause severe intestinal irritiation and purgation.
Lectins (Castor bean, Rosary pea, Black locust)
A prescription basically for anti infectives added to feed. Must follow the label for mixing and feeding. Enforced by the FDA.
Veterinary feed directive
Discovered on King ranch. Parasite in RBCs. Eradicated from USA. Transmitted by Boophilus spp. tick. Animal develops disease at young age when not really susceptible but can develop immunity. Animal becomes carrier but is also resistant. Urine is dark red to brown color from hemoglobinuria.
Babesiosis (Texas Tick Fever)
If severe scours give less
Milk More electrolytes instead
Failure of eructation that results in free gas bloat and ruminal distention. Usually due to vagus nerve damage due to TRP
Type I Vagus Indigestion
Produce alpha 2 casein in milk
First stage of anaplasmosis lasts 3-8 weeks and ends with
Rise in body temp. Incubation phase
Abdominocentesis findings for traumatic reticulopericarditis
Increased WBC (PMN >6,000 nucleated cells)
Increased concentrations (>3g/dL)
Restricitions on aminoglycosides
Only can really be used in fetal pigs (withdrawal is 40 days). Zero tolerance drug.
Diarrhea with secretion of water is greater than can be absorbed. Usually from hypersecretion from small intestinal crypts due to abnormal stimulation. Stimulation increases adenyl cyclase activity and production of cAMP within the cells. Most commonly caused by enterotoxins and rotavirus. More common type in neonates.
Control methods for free gas bloat
Fix underlying issue
AUC/MIC dependent antibiotic. Broad spectrum and bacteriostatic. Binds to the 30s ribosome. Minimal affinity for mammalian ribosomes, and prevents protein synthesis. Wide distribution through tissues, mostly eliminated through kidney.
These have zero tolerance for residues
Aminoglycosides EL drugs Approved drugs used in different class than labeled
These products cannot be used off label
Main reason for residue testing
Public health concern. Risk= consumption x risk/unit of consumption
ELDU is not allowed for
EPA products, production reasons, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, non medical use of sedatives
Outcome of BVDV infection during gestation days 40-120
Persistently infected animals. Fetus could be immunotolerant
Failure of omasal transport preventing aboral movement of ingesta from reticulum to abomasum. Functional or mechanical outflow disturbances from vagus damage due to mycoticomastitis, reticular abscesses, localised adhesions
Type II vagal indigestion (omasal transport failure)
Induces secretion and aids in pH in calf e. coli
Heat stable toxin
Most common site of traumatic reticuloperitonitis
Right medial wall of the reticulum. Dairy cows more common
NSAID In canada and europe approved for adjunct therapy for acute respiratory disease, diarrhea, and acute mastitis
Calf born with heart outside of chest.
Ectopia cordis cervicalis
Sets tolerance levels for drug residues based on approved drug label.
Target tissue for residue testing
Liver, kidney, muscle, pelvic fat.
Test used for digestion of fibers on rumen fluid
Cellulose digestion test
Severity of scours depends on
Which cause The dose Health of the calf
First organ receiving blood from the GI tract
Seen in western states. Caused by Rhabdovirus. Similar to FMD and reportable. Seen in 6-8 year old cattle. Incubation is 2-5 days.
Inflammation of the salivary gland. Tx: reduce swelling, drain abscesses and broad spectrum antibiotics. Wounds and infections or blockage can lead to cysts
Broad spectrum time dependent antibiotics. Bacteriostatic. Mimics the PABA precursor at the beginning of the THFA pathway blocking production of the active form of folic acid. Weak acid.
Signs include black tarry feces and anemia. Sharp decline in production and appetite. Diagnosed with profound anemia and Guaiac fecal occult blood test. Associated with lymphosarcoma and cows >5 years old. Treat by restoring blood volume and IV ranitidine
Type II abomasal ulcers
Non perforating Major bleeding
First helminth in calves. Disease usually not associated with infection but may see loss in manure.
Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound. Green seeds are most toxic. Toxin causes severe gastrointestinal irritation and liver degeneration, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and death. Treat with laxatives to clear GI tract and activated charcoal.
Coffee weed, sesbania
Tier of residue testing. Designed to target herds and flocks of origin.
Important in operations that mix calves at early age. Penetrates mucosa and causes intense submucosal inflammation, secretory diarrhea
Salmonella S. typhimurium, dublin, newport
Allows further breakdown of food and addition of large quantities of saliva (buffer)
Tests for drug residues based on established levels
Common problem in intensively managed dairy herds. Signs include DMI, diarrhea, lameness, low milk fat test, rumen stasis. Fresh and high intake cows are at higher risk. Rumen fluid will be <4
Most common causes of anemia in the cow
Parasitism and Nutritional deficiencies
During this there is complete absence of reticuloruminal motility. Direct depression of the gastric center and failure of the vagal or motor pathways
Atony of the primary mixing cycle
Goals of fecal sampling
Fast, Reliable, Targeted treatment
Causes colonization of the ileum in calf e. coli
K99 fimbria (FS)
Cause complete rumen stasis, severe dehydration, and recumbency with cold extremitis.
Severe neutropenia, hemoconcentration, and hypoproteinemia present. Treat with antibiotics and restricted exercise.
Type IV abomasal ulcers
Perforating diffuse peritonitis
More common congenital cardiac defects in cattle. Causes loud holosystolic murmur when yearling.
Ventricular septal defect
Hook worm. Infection by ingestion and skin penetration. Causes anemia and black tarry feces in calves
Inhabits the small intestine. Associated with anorexia, villous atrophy and diarrhea when in large numbers.
Calves undergo spontaneous cure. Transmitted spontaneously
Occurs in early postpartum.
Type III Abomasal ulcers
Perforating local peritonitis
Approves chemicals used as pesticides
Factors contributing to SARA
Source of and particle size of grain
Milk fat %, fat to protein ratio
Assessment of manure
Resistance to B lactams occurs by
Avoidance by way of B lactamase production or altering the PBP to prevent binding
Spiny purple and black berries. Toxins are saponins, oxalates, and alkaloid phtolacine. Causes bloody diarrhea, colic, salivation and death
Plant that causes bone marrow damage and aplastic anemia. Can lead to hemorrhagic syndrome due to platelet loss
During this cardia will remain firmly shut if foam or fluid contact. Difficult to auscultate differences between primary and secondary
Secondary (eructation) cycle
Massively edematous wound infection. Bighead in young rams. Mediated by alpha toxin.
Myonecrosis (Clostridium novyi Type A)
Contains triterpenoid compounds. Causes intrahepatic cholestasis and photosensitization
Tier of residue testing that focuses on samples at the establishment level. Samples taken by plant inspectors still undergo KIS testing. Positive samples dont repeat KIS testing
Caused by mycobacterium avium sub species paratuberculosis. Small rod shaped bacterium. Target is GI tract, the ileum is primary site for infection. Causes PLE, diarrhea, and rapid weightloss
Test for digestion of proteins in rumen fluid
Nitrate reduction test
Purpose of bacteria in rumen
Digest cellulose, cant be seen with electron microscope
What can be determined through rumen auscultation
Rate and stregth of rumen contractions
Nature of rumen contents
Most common displaced abomasum. 180 degree torsion without volvulus. Rotation along its long axis ventral and to the left of the rumen. Little/no outflow obstruction occurs
Left displaced abomasum
Centesis of area below the gas ping. Fluid with pH <4.5 is abomasal. Burnt almond odor to gas
Sporadic fatal enteric disease of adult dairy cattle. Usually seen in first 3-4 months of lactation. Massive hemorrhage into the small intestine with subsequent intraluminal formation of large clot and casts creating obstruction
Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (bloody gut)
Associated with Bovine Leukemia virus. Multicentric in heart, uterus, abomasum. In cattle >3 years of age. Signs are dependent on location of tumors.
Enzootic adult LSA
Attaches to villous and crypt enterocytes. Causes maldigestion and malabsorption. Clinical signs have longer duration
Usually caused by fluorosis and weak teeth. Seen in areas with factories. Diagnose by bone biopsy
Pitting of teeth
Dairy. Has good feet
Number one reason to choose antibiotic
Based on system affected. Then most likely microbes associated, then expected outcomes.
Indicates the overall health of the ruminant
Frequency of primary contractions
Small analysis for antibiotic treatment for BRD in high risk calves. Some antibiotics proven better than others. Tx with AB significantly reduced BRD morbidity and mortality
DeDonder and Apley Meta Analysis
Percent dehydrated calve with slightly sunken eyes and depression
Shed design for calf scour management
All in all out <20 calves per air unit
Clinical signs of vagus indigestion
Chronic progressive weight loss with abdominal distention. Papple
Infectious necrotic hepatits. Highly fatal. Usually follows liver damage done by Fasciola hepatica. Peracute death most common.
Black disease (Clostridium novyi Type B)
Adult dairy cows, can only use sulfadimethoxine
Affects bone tissue. Usually mandible. Lesion is hard immovable mass. Gram positive filamentous branching organism. Sodium Iodide IV once a week is treatment
Actinomycosis "Lumpy Jaw"
Normal level of rumen chloride
Most important parasite. Low numbers can cause anorexia. Found in abomasum. In young leads to impaired digestion.
Four primary locations of esophageal obstruction
Pharyngeal inlet #1 Thoracic inlet Base of the heart Cardia of the rumen
Non antibiotic combo and treatment of calf scours caused by rotavirus, crypto, salmonella, e coli, and coronavirus
Has the highest incidence of volative residues for sulfonamides
Primary disease. Ruminal gases are trapped in small bibles within abnormally viscous digest. Usually dependent of feedstuffs
Associated with Rye grass. Alpacas and fallow deer most susceptible.
Allows suckling calves to bypass to abomasum
Inflammatory changes that develop in the rumen mucosa and underlying tissues in cattle fed high energy rations with inadequate roughage. Associated lesions of liver abscess and laminitis occurs. Can affect whole herd if not adapted
Blocks sodium channels in nerve cells. Inhibits conduction & transmission of signal. Infected tissue has lower pH and reduced effect
Approves prescription and OTC drugs
Acute onset. Caused by abrupt dietary change that results in self limiting but rapid decline in rumen fermentation. Acute anorexia, diarrhea
Simple (primary) rumen indigestion
Main aim of treatment for calf diarrhea
Return calve to normal fluid balance
Veterinarians only. Must have valid client patient relationship. Ingredient needed is not a drug labeled for the production class in question
Caused by Clostridium hemolyticum Type D. Usually in fluke infected cattle, well nourished, and over 1 year old.
Erythromycin is parent compound. Intracellular activity. Azalides are better for intracellular. Broad spectrum. Inhibits protein synthesis by binding the 50s ribosomal subunit. Bacteriostatic. Concentrates in cells that are more acidic than plasma.
Causes liver abscesses.
Fusobacterium necrophroum, corynebacterium, and SARA. Greater in Beef
pH of ___ indicated lactic acidosis in the rumen fluid
Occurs during the grazing period. Disease caused by emergence of immature worms from gastric glands 10-14 days after ingestion of larva.
Type I ostertagia
Normal bovine Total WBC count
Found that most adult cattle diarrhea is not bacterial related. Salmonellosis is only primary cause of diarrhea that can be treated with AB.
Geof Smith Paper- enteric disease
Grows early spring. Found across US. Ranunculin toxin which is glycoside that is converted to protanemonin. Irritates the mouth and causes gastroenteritis. Excessive salivation, reddened mucosa, diarrhea.
Spores in enviornment. Follows fasciola hepatica infection. Most common in well nourished >1 year calves. Peracute death
Bacillary hemoglobinuria (Clostridium novyi Type D)
Rumen is functional in calves once
Grain is introduced
Autosomal recessive in Holstein cattle. Looks similar to failure of passive transfer. Leukocytes cant phagocytize bacteria
Bovine Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Dentral condition older cows die from. Teeth wear down to point that animal cant eat
The stomach hairworm. Smallest abomasal worm.
Causes intravenous hemolysis after 1-3 days of depression. Chronic exposure increases liver stores and stress causes release.
Caused by high altitude causing hypoxic vasoconstriction and cardiac failure results in edema in the brisket.
Caused by pestivirus. Cytopathix and noncytopathic biotypes, both required for mucosal disease. Immunosuppressive. Inapparent infections
Bovine viral diarrhea/ mucosal disease
Test used on rumen contents for anaerobic fermentation
Methylene blue reduction test
Caused by parapoxvirus. Usually mild disease of calves. Raised reddish papules on muzzle. Can cause lesions in humans
Bovine papular stomatitis
Treatment for crypto in calves
Supportive care, no antibiotics effective. Prevent exposure
Malignant edema follows wound contamination, hemorrhage, and edema. Death within 24 hours. Lesion starts warm and painful then becomes crepitant and cold
Braxy (Clostridium septicum)
local anesthetic with 5-8 hour duration. 20-30 min onset.
Plants that cause heinz bodies
Kale, beet pulp, rye grass, Brassica plants, onions
Related to chloramphenicol. Has fluorine at the 3' carbon position which prevents bacterial inactivation. Time dependent. Broad spectrum mostly Gram -. Use for BRD, Pink eye, interdigital phlegmon. Inhibits protein synthesis and blocks peptidyltransferase activity at the 50s ribosomal subunit. Good for diseased lungs.
If orally administered 1 day meat withhold for swine and goats. Not approved for pre-ruminating calves or lactating cattle
Purpose of protozoa in the rumen
Controls bacterial population.
During advanced pregnancy when the enlarged uterus displaces abomasum which interferes with normal motility
Type IV vagal indigestion (late gestation indigestion)
Outcome of BVDV infection during 120-180 days in gestation
Birth defects. Cerebellar hyperplasia
Caused by Clostridium novyi. May be associated with black leg and liver flukes. Results in sudden death, fever, toxemia
Outcome of BVDV infection in 1st or 2nd trimester
Fetal death or abortion
Common infection in cattle, role in diarrhea unclear
Hepatotoxic cyclic peptides lead to disntegration of hepatocellular cytoskeleton. Ingestion of large doses leads to death within an hour.
Blue green algae and muschrooms
ELDU of FDA approved products is permitted based on
Manifestation of an underlying primary disorder. Sporadic occurance and usually one animal. Can be caused by esophageal dysfuction and ruminal motility dysfunction
Free gas bloat
Tier of residue testing that evaluated 800 samples per chemical compound class for each of the production classes chosen to be tested. Old method only did 300
Increases in seeds and when ground. Lectin toxin. Cattle must consume 0.25% of body weight
What you want in electrolytes
Electrolytes These also once vet intervention: Bicarb Energy- glucose
Hereditary short mandible or weak jaw