Large Animal Medicine II Exam I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Large Animal Medicine II Exam I Deck (202):
1

Number one cause in dairy cattle is phosphorus deficiency. Leads to fragile red blood cells and usually in cows on a lot of grass

Post partum hemoglobinuria

2

Caused by bovine coronavirus. Wild ruminants are reservoirs for the virus. 2-6 year old animals are at highest risk. Diagnosis by detection of virus with ELISA or RT-PCR. Samples must be collected 1-3 days of onset of diarrhea. Treat with fluids

Winter Dysentery

3

Treatment for anaplasma

Oxytetracycline, before replicative stage occurs in the cow so during the incubation stage

4

May occur in young calves when 1st weaned. Produced hypotonicity and leads to intravascular hemolysis

Water intoxication

5

Assosicated with lupine in western australia. Causes liver damage

Phomopsins

6

Test for digestion of carbohydrates in rumen fluid

Gluose fermentation test

7

Outcome of infection with BVD in pregnant animal depends upon

Stage of gestation Strain of BVDV Immune status of the cow

8

Dairy. Good for cheese

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Jersey

9

Caused by feeding of rough fibrous feed during droughts or feeding machine made wheat. No feces, dehydration, anorexia, abdominal distension. Usually found on exploratory rumentomy. 

Omasal impaction

10

Dose dependent infection, dependent of life cycle of parasite. Causes bloody diarrhea

Coccidiosis Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii

11

Monocytes 1-5% in bovine means

Chronic disease

12

Attaches to villous enterocytes, decreases surface area and causes malabsoptive diarrhea. Resolution in 2 days

Rotavirus

13

Second most common deficiency of cattle. Secondary to molybdenum excess or from soil/plants

Copper

14

Primary impaction due to dry feed with limited water. Secondary impaction due to disturbances in motility or pyloric outflow failure. Results from TRP, Right displaced abomasum

Type III Vagal indigestion (Abomasal obstruction)

15

Purpose of fungus in the rumen

Aids bacteria in cellulose digestion.

16

NSAID that can be used as endotoxemic ridding effect in calves

Flunixin meglumine

17

NSAID of propionic acid class. Potent PGE2 inhibitor. Short half life and requires multiple doses

Ketoprofen

18

Treatment for calf e.coli

Remove organism from GI tract- Amoxicillin Correct dehydration Prevention with vaccine

19

Highly restricted class of antibiotics. ELDU is forbidden. Bactericidal. Concentration dependent. Inhibits bacterial DNA replication and transcription by binding the A subunit of DNA gyrase.

Fluoroquinolones

20

Affects older animals more severely. Calves can be carriers. Caused by rickettsial organism. Invades margin of RBCs. Transmitted by ticks and horse flies. Cattle and sheep are susceptible. Will have milk drop, icterus, aggression. First sign is presence of organism in RBCs.

Anaplasmosis A. marginale or A. caudatum

21

Produced by fungi. Grows on corn, peanuts, and cotton. Causes hepatic failure.

Aflatoxin

22

Physiological signs of pain

Increased respiration Increased HR Increased Body temperature Increased pupil size

23

Occur during periparturient period. Associated with LDAs, coliform mastitis, and metritis. Not severely affected, causes reduced food intake and milk production. Diagnosis only at necropsy

Type I abomasal ulcers.

Non perforating, non bleeding

24

Seen months after pasture exposure. Caused by simultaneous emergence of arrested larvae. Cattle appear normal and then death in 1-2 weeks

Type II ostertagia

25

Pathogenesis of rumen acidosis

Loss of body water causes dehydration contributing to acidosis. Lactic acid is absorbed from rumen as well as from small intestine and profound lactic acid develops. 

26

Lethal at 0.3% BW. Glycoside toxin carboxyatractyloside causes severe hypoglycemia and massive hepatic necrosis. Young plants more toxic.

Cocklebur

27

Only NSAID approved for use in the US for cattle and swine. Labeled for fever/inflammation associated with respiratory disease, mastitis, and endotoxemia.

Flunixin meglumine

28

Restrictions for B lactams

Follow label for aminopenicillins. ELDY is permitted as long as AMDUCA is followed

29

Results from other disease. Chronic. Rumination is absent, rumen underfilled, fecal production is depressed, might have diarrhea

Secondary rumen indigestion

30

Asymmetric abdominal distension most pronounced in the left paralumbar fossa. Increased HR and RR. Acute form can cause death in 30 min to 4 hours

Bloat

31

Diarrhea with damage to villous epithelium and loss of enterocytes leading to shortening of the villi because loss is faster than replacement. Results in decreased suface area and enterocytes lost are mature and important. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa are most commonly involved with this type of diarrhea

Malabsorptive diarrhea

32

Treatment for severe cases of SARA

Successful tx limited.

Empty rumen by oral lavage/rumenotomy.

Oral buffers

Fluid therapy

33

Management for frothy bloat

Grazing management

Polxalene (top dressing)

Ionophores 

34

Least common displaced abomasum. 180 degree torsion with or without volvulus. Rotation along mesenteric axis. Outflow obstruction and schema if arteries obstructed. 

Right displaced abomasum

35

Toxin: Abrin

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Rosary Pea

36

Toxin: Robin. New growth is most toxic

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Black locust

37

Fluoroquinolone used in swine

Just Enrofloxacin

38

Azalides consist of

Azithromycin, Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin, Tildipirosin

39

Caused by oral exposure to fecal coliforms that lead to colonization of the gut. 80% attachment occurs. Signs include secretory diarrhea and dehydration.

Enterotoxigenic E. Coli

40

Time dependent antibiotics. Bactericidal. Binds to penicillin binding proteins, Penems cause cell lysis. Poor intracellular activity

B lactams

41

Beef cow

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Piedmontese.

Italian. Beef selected for myostatin gene

42

Causes of elevated rumen fluid chloride

Abomasal disease

Abomasal reflux

Obstruction of intestinal flow

43

Restrictions for Florfenicol

Extra label use is permitted. Prolonged withdrawal for different than labeled production class.

44

If non segmented neutrophils 0% seen on bovine WBC count

Indicates Acute overwhelming infection

45

A carcass with violative residues is condemned by

FSIS

46

Antibiotic selection has been proven to be based on

Production class and organ system affected

47

Instrument used to treat esophageal obstructions

Probang

48

Developmental stage for anaplasmosis lasts 4-9 days and

Most signs are present, lasts 3 weeks to 3 months, carrier state

49

Diagnosis for anaplasma

Complement fixation test

50

Inhibits COX isoenzymes lowering prostaglandin production from arachadonic acid.

NSAIDs

51

Number one risk factor for calve diarrhea

Colostrum deficiency. Failure of passive transfer.

52

Mostly acquired from systemic infection and end up with valvular vegetative endocarditis. Usually right side of heart.

Valvular heart disease

53

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Brahma

54

Wooden tongue. Painful nodular lesions involving the soft tissues and oral cavity leading to swelling at the base of tongue. Examine pus for sulfar granules.

Actinobacillosis

55

Hepatotoxin found in plants. Cumulative and progressive. Problems 1-5 months after ingestion. Causes in-utero infections. Alkaloids damage hepatocytes leading to fibrosis. Neuro and liver signs

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

56

Beef cow

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Scotch Highland

57

Reduction in frequency or strength of primary contraction. Caused by reduction in excitatory drive to gastric center, increase in inhibitory inputs, and weakness of the motor pathway. 

Hypomotlity of the primary mixing cycle

58

Provides large surface area for the absorption of VFAs, electrolytes, and water. Reduces feed particles. Located toward the right of the median plane and opposing the 7th and 11th ribs

Omasum

59

Bactericidal, concentration depended. Primarily aerobic Gram -. Highly water soluble. Oral absorption is poor after gut closure. Irreversibly binds to the 30s ribosome. Accumulates in lysosomes and mitochondria. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.

Aminoglycosides

60

Used in swine. Avoid ruminants and horses because causes Clostridial overgrowth. Inhibits protein synthesis by binding the 50s ribosome. Used for mycoplasma pneumonias and bacterial arthritis. Can result in swelling of the anus

Lincosamides

61

Beef

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King ranch

62

Animals eating 5% or more for over 30 days will die. Invasive weed. Causes pyrrolizidine toxicity

Tansy Ragwort

63

Oocyte shedding occurs as early as 3 days of age and peaks at 2 weeks. Can continue to occur if environment contaminated. Severe villous atrophy and malabsorptive diarrhea.

Cryptosporidium parvum

64

Best drug use for pain.

Multimodal drug use. Target acute pain with quick acting, short duration. Follow with long acting NSAIDs, opioids, local, NMDA receptor, a2 agonists.

65

Glycoproteins that bind to cell receptors causing inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death. Most toxic of known plant compounds. Concentrated in seeds and are released following chewing the seed. Cause severe intestinal irritiation and purgation. 

Lectins (Castor bean, Rosary pea, Black locust)

66

A prescription basically for anti infectives added to feed. Must follow the label for mixing and feeding. Enforced by the FDA.

Veterinary feed directive

67

Discovered on King ranch. Parasite in RBCs. Eradicated from USA. Transmitted by Boophilus spp. tick. Animal develops disease at young age when not really susceptible but can develop immunity. Animal becomes carrier but is also resistant. Urine is dark red to brown color from hemoglobinuria.

Babesiosis (Texas Tick Fever)

68

If severe scours give less

Milk More electrolytes instead

69

Failure of eructation that results in free gas bloat and ruminal distention. Usually due to vagus nerve damage due to TRP

Type I Vagus Indigestion

70

Produce alpha 2 casein in milk

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Guernsey

71

First stage of anaplasmosis lasts 3-8 weeks and ends with

Rise in body temp. Incubation phase

72

Abdominocentesis findings for traumatic reticulopericarditis

Increased WBC (PMN >6,000 nucleated cells)

Increased concentrations (>3g/dL)

 

73

Beef cow

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Chiaiana

 

Italian

74

Restricitions on aminoglycosides

Only can really be used in fetal pigs (withdrawal is 40 days). Zero tolerance drug.

75

Diarrhea with secretion of water is greater than can be absorbed. Usually from hypersecretion from small intestinal crypts due to abnormal stimulation. Stimulation increases adenyl cyclase activity and production of cAMP within the cells. Most commonly caused by enterotoxins and rotavirus. More common type in neonates. 

Secertory diarrhea

76

Control methods for free gas bloat

Temporary rumenotomy

Fix underlying issue

 

77

AUC/MIC dependent antibiotic. Broad spectrum and bacteriostatic. Binds to the 30s ribosome. Minimal affinity for mammalian ribosomes, and prevents protein synthesis. Wide distribution through tissues, mostly eliminated through kidney.

Tetracycline

78

These have zero tolerance for residues

Aminoglycosides EL drugs Approved drugs used in different class than labeled

79

These products cannot be used off label

EPA

80

Main reason for residue testing

Public health concern. Risk= consumption x risk/unit of consumption

81

ELDU is not allowed for

EPA products, production reasons, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, non medical use of sedatives

82

Outcome of BVDV infection during gestation days 40-120

Persistently infected animals. Fetus could be immunotolerant

83

Failure of omasal transport preventing aboral movement of ingesta from reticulum to abomasum. Functional or mechanical outflow disturbances from vagus damage due to mycoticomastitis, reticular abscesses, localised adhesions

Type II vagal indigestion (omasal transport failure)

84

Induces secretion and aids in pH in calf e. coli

Heat stable toxin

85

Most common site of traumatic reticuloperitonitis

Right medial wall of the reticulum. Dairy cows more common

86

NSAID In canada and europe approved for adjunct therapy for acute respiratory disease, diarrhea, and acute mastitis

Meloxicam

87

Calf born with heart outside of chest.

Ectopia cordis cervicalis

88

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Shorthorn

89

Beef cow

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Belted Galloway

90

Sets tolerance levels for drug residues based on approved drug label.

FDA

91

Target tissue for residue testing

Liver, kidney, muscle, pelvic fat.

92

Test used for digestion of fibers on rumen fluid

Cellulose digestion test

93

Severity of scours depends on

Which cause The dose Health of the calf

94

First organ receiving blood from the GI tract

Liver

95

Seen in western states. Caused by Rhabdovirus. Similar to FMD and reportable. Seen in 6-8 year old cattle. Incubation is 2-5 days.

Vesicular stomatitis

96

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Hereford

97

Inflammation of the salivary gland. Tx: reduce swelling, drain abscesses and broad spectrum antibiotics. Wounds and infections or blockage can lead to cysts

Sialadentitis

98

Broad spectrum time dependent antibiotics. Bacteriostatic. Mimics the PABA precursor at the beginning of the THFA pathway blocking production of the active form of folic acid. Weak acid.

Sulfonamindes

99

Signs include black tarry feces and anemia. Sharp decline in production and appetite. Diagnosed with profound anemia and Guaiac fecal occult blood test. Associated with lymphosarcoma and cows >5 years old. Treat by restoring blood volume and IV ranitidine

Type II abomasal ulcers

Non perforating Major bleeding 

100

First helminth in calves. Disease usually not associated with infection but may see loss in manure.

Strongylus papillosus

101

Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound. Green seeds are most toxic. Toxin causes severe gastrointestinal irritation and liver degeneration, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and death. Treat with laxatives to clear GI tract and activated charcoal.

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Coffee weed, sesbania

102

Tier of residue testing. Designed to target herds and flocks of origin.

Third tier

103

Important in operations that mix calves at early age. Penetrates mucosa and causes intense submucosal inflammation, secretory diarrhea

Salmonella S. typhimurium, dublin, newport

104

Allows further breakdown of food and addition of large quantities of saliva (buffer)

Rumination

105

Tests for drug residues based on established levels

FSIS

106

Common problem in intensively managed dairy herds. Signs include DMI, diarrhea, lameness, low milk fat test, rumen stasis. Fresh and high intake cows are at higher risk. Rumen fluid will be <4

SARA

107

Most common causes of anemia in the cow

Parasitism and Nutritional deficiencies

108

During this there is complete absence of reticuloruminal motility. Direct depression of the gastric center and failure of the vagal or motor pathways

Atony of the primary mixing cycle

109

Goals of fecal sampling

Fast, Reliable, Targeted treatment

110

Causes colonization of the ileum in calf e. coli

K99 fimbria (FS)

111

Cause complete rumen stasis, severe dehydration, and recumbency with cold extremitis. 

Severe neutropenia, hemoconcentration, and hypoproteinemia present. Treat with antibiotics and restricted exercise. 

Type IV abomasal ulcers

 

Perforating diffuse peritonitis

112

More common congenital cardiac defects in cattle. Causes loud holosystolic murmur when yearling.

Ventricular septal defect

113

Hook worm. Infection by ingestion and skin penetration. Causes anemia and black tarry feces in calves

Bunostomum

114

Inhabits the small intestine. Associated with anorexia, villous atrophy and diarrhea when in large numbers.

Cooperia spp.

115

Calves undergo spontaneous cure. Transmitted spontaneously

Toxocara vitulorum

116

Occurs in early postpartum. 

 

Type III Abomasal ulcers

Perforating local peritonitis

117

Approves chemicals used as pesticides

EPA

118

Factors contributing to SARA

Source of and particle size of grain

Milk fat %, fat to protein ratio

Assessment of manure

119

Resistance to B lactams occurs by

Avoidance by way of B lactamase production or altering the PBP to prevent binding

120

Spiny purple and black berries. Toxins are saponins, oxalates, and alkaloid phtolacine. Causes bloody diarrhea, colic, salivation and death

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Pokeweed

121

Plant that causes bone marrow damage and aplastic anemia. Can lead to hemorrhagic syndrome due to platelet loss

Braken furn

122

During this cardia will remain firmly shut if foam or fluid contact. Difficult to auscultate differences between primary and secondary

Secondary (eructation) cycle

123

Massively edematous wound infection. Bighead in young rams. Mediated by alpha toxin. 

Myonecrosis (Clostridium novyi Type A)

124

Contains triterpenoid compounds. Causes intrahepatic cholestasis and photosensitization

Lantana

125

Tier of residue testing that focuses on samples at the establishment level. Samples taken by plant inspectors still undergo KIS testing. Positive samples dont repeat KIS testing

Second tier

126

Caused by mycobacterium avium sub species paratuberculosis. Small rod shaped bacterium. Target is GI tract, the ileum is primary site for infection. Causes PLE, diarrhea, and rapid weightloss

Johnes disease

127

Test for digestion of proteins in rumen fluid

Nitrate reduction test

128

Purpose of bacteria in rumen

Digest cellulose, cant be seen with electron microscope

129

What can be determined through rumen auscultation

Rate and stregth of rumen contractions

Rumen volume

Nature of rumen contents

130

Most common displaced abomasum. 180 degree torsion without volvulus. Rotation along its long axis ventral and to the left of the rumen. Little/no outflow obstruction occurs

Left displaced abomasum

131

Centesis of area below the gas ping. Fluid with pH <4.5 is abomasal. Burnt almond odor to gas

Lipstack test

132

Sporadic fatal enteric disease of adult dairy cattle. Usually seen in first 3-4 months of lactation. Massive hemorrhage into the small intestine with subsequent intraluminal formation of large clot and casts creating obstruction

Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (bloody gut)

133

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Dwarf Zebu

134

Associated with Bovine Leukemia virus. Multicentric in heart, uterus, abomasum. In cattle >3 years of age. Signs are dependent on location of tumors.

Enzootic adult LSA

135

Attaches to villous and crypt enterocytes. Causes maldigestion and malabsorption. Clinical signs have longer duration

Coronavirus

136

Usually caused by fluorosis and weak teeth. Seen in areas with factories. Diagnose by bone biopsy

Pitting of teeth

137

Dairy. Has good feet

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Brown swiss

138

Number one reason to choose antibiotic

Based on system affected. Then most likely microbes associated, then expected outcomes.

139

Indicates the overall health of the ruminant

Frequency of primary contractions

140

Small analysis for antibiotic treatment for BRD in high risk calves. Some antibiotics proven better than others. Tx with AB significantly reduced BRD morbidity and mortality

DeDonder and Apley Meta Analysis

141

Percent dehydrated calve with slightly sunken eyes and depression

7%

142

Shed design for calf scour management

All in all out <20 calves per air unit

143

Clinical signs of vagus indigestion

Chronic progressive weight loss with abdominal distention. Papple

144

Infectious necrotic hepatits. Highly fatal. Usually follows liver damage done by Fasciola hepatica. Peracute death most common. 

Black disease (Clostridium novyi Type B)

145

Sulfonamide restrictions

Adult dairy cows, can only use sulfadimethoxine

146

Affects bone tissue. Usually mandible. Lesion is hard immovable mass. Gram positive filamentous branching organism. Sodium Iodide IV once a week is treatment

Actinomycosis "Lumpy Jaw"

147

Normal level of rumen chloride

30 mEq/L

148

Most important parasite. Low numbers can cause anorexia. Found in abomasum. In young leads to impaired digestion.

Ostertagia ostertagi

149

Four primary locations of esophageal obstruction

Pharyngeal inlet #1 Thoracic inlet Base of the heart Cardia of the rumen

150

Non antibiotic combo and treatment of calf scours caused by rotavirus, crypto, salmonella, e coli, and coronavirus

Rotagen combo

151

Has the highest incidence of volative residues for sulfonamides

Pork

152

Primary disease. Ruminal gases are trapped in small bibles within abnormally viscous digest. Usually dependent of feedstuffs

Frothy bloat

153

Associated with Rye grass. Alpacas and fallow deer most susceptible.

Sporidesmin

154

Allows suckling calves to bypass to abomasum

Oesphageal groove

155

Inflammatory changes that develop in the rumen mucosa and underlying tissues in cattle fed high energy rations with inadequate roughage. Associated lesions of liver abscess and laminitis occurs. Can affect whole herd if not adapted

Rumenitis

156

Blocks sodium channels in nerve cells. Inhibits conduction &amp; transmission of signal. Infected tissue has lower pH and reduced effect

Local anesthesia

157

Approves prescription and OTC drugs

FDA

158

Acute onset. Caused by abrupt dietary change that results in self limiting but rapid decline in rumen fermentation. Acute anorexia, diarrhea

Simple (primary) rumen indigestion

159

Main aim of treatment for calf diarrhea

Return calve to normal fluid balance

160

Veterinarians only. Must have valid client patient relationship. Ingredient needed is not a drug labeled for the production class in question

ELDU

161

Caused by Clostridium hemolyticum Type D. Usually in fluke infected cattle, well nourished, and over 1 year old.

Bacillary Hemoglobinuria

162

Erythromycin is parent compound. Intracellular activity. Azalides are better for intracellular. Broad spectrum. Inhibits protein synthesis by binding the 50s ribosomal subunit. Bacteriostatic. Concentrates in cells that are more acidic than plasma.

Macrolides

163

Causes liver abscesses.

Fusobacterium necrophroum, corynebacterium, and SARA. Greater in Beef

164

pH of ___ indicated lactic acidosis in the rumen fluid

<5.5

165

Beef cow

Charolais

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166

Occurs during the grazing period. Disease caused by emergence of immature worms from gastric glands 10-14 days after ingestion of larva.

Type I ostertagia

167

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Angus

168

Normal bovine Total WBC count

4,000-12,000

169

Found that most adult cattle diarrhea is not bacterial related. Salmonellosis is only primary cause of diarrhea that can be treated with AB.

Geof Smith Paper- enteric disease

170

Grows early spring. Found across US. Ranunculin toxin which is glycoside that is converted to protanemonin. Irritates the mouth and causes gastroenteritis. Excessive salivation, reddened mucosa, diarrhea. 

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Blister buttercup

171

Spores in enviornment. Follows fasciola hepatica infection. Most common in well nourished >1 year calves. Peracute death

Bacillary hemoglobinuria (Clostridium novyi Type D)

172

Rumen is functional in calves once

Grain is introduced

173

Autosomal recessive in Holstein cattle. Looks similar to failure of passive transfer. Leukocytes cant phagocytize bacteria

Bovine Leukocyte adhesion deficiency

174

Dentral condition older cows die from. Teeth wear down to point that animal cant eat

Dental attrition

175

The stomach hairworm. Smallest abomasal worm.

Trihostrongylus axei

176

Causes intravenous hemolysis after 1-3 days of depression. Chronic exposure increases liver stores and stress causes release.

Copper

177

Caused by high altitude causing hypoxic vasoconstriction and cardiac failure results in edema in the brisket.

Brisket disease

178

Caused by pestivirus. Cytopathix and noncytopathic biotypes, both required for mucosal disease. Immunosuppressive. Inapparent infections

Bovine viral diarrhea/ mucosal disease

179

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Aryshire

180

Test used on rumen contents for anaerobic fermentation

Methylene blue reduction test

181

Caused by parapoxvirus. Usually mild disease of calves. Raised reddish papules on muzzle. Can cause lesions in humans

Bovine papular stomatitis

182

Treatment for crypto in calves

Supportive care, no antibiotics effective. Prevent exposure

183

Malignant edema follows wound contamination, hemorrhage, and edema. Death within 24 hours. Lesion starts warm and painful then becomes crepitant and cold

Braxy (Clostridium septicum)

184

local anesthetic with 5-8 hour duration. 20-30 min onset.

Bupivicaine

185

Beef cow

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Devon

186

Plants that cause heinz bodies

Kale, beet pulp, rye grass, Brassica plants, onions

187

Related to chloramphenicol. Has fluorine at the 3' carbon position which prevents bacterial inactivation. Time dependent. Broad spectrum mostly Gram -. Use for BRD, Pink eye, interdigital phlegmon. Inhibits protein synthesis and blocks peptidyltransferase activity at the 50s ribosomal subunit. Good for diseased lungs.

Florfenicol

188

If orally administered 1 day meat withhold for swine and goats. Not approved for pre-ruminating calves or lactating cattle

Neomycin

189

Purpose of protozoa in the rumen

Controls bacterial population.

190

During advanced pregnancy when the enlarged uterus displaces abomasum which interferes with normal motility

Type IV vagal indigestion (late gestation indigestion)

191

Outcome of BVDV infection during 120-180 days in gestation

Birth defects. Cerebellar hyperplasia

192

Caused by Clostridium novyi. May be associated with black leg and liver flukes. Results in sudden death, fever, toxemia

Black disease

193

Outcome of BVDV infection in 1st or 2nd trimester

Fetal death or abortion

194

Common infection in cattle, role in diarrhea unclear

Giardia

195

Dairy cow

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Dutch Belted

196

Hepatotoxic cyclic peptides lead to disntegration of hepatocellular cytoskeleton. Ingestion of large doses leads to death within an hour.

Blue green algae and muschrooms

197

ELDU of FDA approved products is permitted based on

AMDUCA guidelines

198

Manifestation of an underlying primary disorder. Sporadic occurance and usually one animal. Can be caused by esophageal dysfuction and ruminal motility dysfunction

Free gas bloat

199

Tier of residue testing that evaluated 800 samples per chemical compound class for each of the production classes chosen to be tested. Old method only did 300

First tier

200

Toxin- Ricin.

Increases in seeds and when ground. Lectin toxin. Cattle must consume 0.25% of body weight 

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Castor bean

201

What you want in electrolytes

Electrolytes These also once vet intervention: Bicarb Energy- glucose

202

Hereditary short mandible or weak jaw

Brachygnathia