Last Bio Testtttt Flashcards Preview

Biology > Last Bio Testtttt > Flashcards

Flashcards in Last Bio Testtttt Deck (56):
1

What is evolution?

1. Changes in traits over time -> micro evolution

2. changes in characteristics in populations over time
= development of new type of organism over time
-> macro evolution

2

Which evolution theory is challenged?

1. changes in traits are widely accepted

2. changes in characteristics
=> development of new types organisms over time
=> development of new species:

1. contradicts the bible (if read literally)
2. mankind did not emerge from apes!

3

religion

• truth already found
• dogma (truth is not allowed to be questioned)
• pattern is defined
new discoveries -> discoveries adapted to pattern

4

science

• still looking for it
observation!
-> looking for patterns

new discoveries -> pattern adopt to discoveries

5

religion 2

being with intentions
meaning of life

we have a soul!

6

science 2

mechanism
no purpose
cognito, ergo sun (ich denke)
is not explained

7

Adaption

(process!)

changes in traits in population over time

(in order to fit better into a specific environment)

8

variation

appearance of different traits in population

9

selection

adapted individuals survive while the poorly adapted die

10

fitness

hereditary contribution to the next generation

11

mutation

spontaneous change of the hereditary substance

12

Lamarck's idea

Individuals acquire traits over their lifetime:

-> change in one generation. Change acquired actively

13

Darwin's idea

Selection happens over generations. Change happens passively.

14

Characteristics

phenotype of a gene (eg. eye colour)

15

Trait

variation of characteristic (blue eyes)

16

evolution (macro)

The development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time.

17

theory in science

a well supported explanation incorporating observations.

18

bird characteristics

opposing toe
s-shaped neck
feathers
beak

19

reptile characteristics

claws
tibia & fibula
tail bone

20

Phylogeny

describes the relationships by ancestry among groups of organisms

21

location of the 'Cradle of Mankind'

Dolomit South africa near Johannisburg

22

Dolomite

known to preserve fossils

bc it's full of lime (calc) which is washed out over the years

caves/ holes are formed

23

How is the fossil-preserving material formed?

Calc-sinster is formed when minerals are precipitated out of the water

24

Taung Baby

2 mio years old

Australopithecus Africanus

25

Dating methods

Stratigraphy

Every layer of rock (stratum) correlates to a specific era in history. When a fossil is found, the stratum it is buried in indicates the era of the fossil.

26

Dating methods

Uniformitariansm (= actualism)

Geological process that can be observed nowdays had the same effect in times past

ex: every year 1mm of sediment is deposed

-> 1m sediment = 1'000 years

27

catastrophism

cuvier postulated that fossils originated from (biblical disasters) -> the flood

28

Faunistic age determination

the hominid fossils are compared to animal fossils from the same finding site / strata -> cross check with other dating methods

29

palaeomagnetism

the magnetic rocks provide a record of past changes of Earth's magnetic field, giving a time-scale for the fossils. One switch of the magnetic field indicates ~ 250'000 years

30

biochemical dating methods

The comparative analysis of DNA and other biochemical molecules (oldest RNA founds 425'000 years old!)

31

The find of the century

Malapa

32

How did scientists know where to look for fossils?

(google earth)
Olive stinkwood grows on humid locations where pits are calc-sinter deposits are likely to be found.

33

Australopithecus Sediba

the famous link between the genus australopithecus and the genus homo and was found in 2009/2010 in Malapa, South-Africa

34

Australopithecus Sediba's characteristics

it features both characteristics from the A. Africans and H. Erectus

35

Why is it of special value?

Not only did they find several bones, but two skeletons were almost complete

Discover until now: 220 fragments, 6 skeletons in total

36

the importance of the skull

Size age ans shape fits precisely between A. Africans and H. Erectus

37

A. Africanus

cranial capacity: 400 cm3
age: 2.2 M.a.
jaws: apelike

38

A. Sediba

cranial capacity: 430 cm3
age: 1,9 M.a.
jaws: between ape & human

39

H. Erectus

cranial capacity: 631 cm3
age: 1.6 mio
jaws: man-shaped

40

Piltdown human

was found in the south east of England in 1912

nitrogen dating method lead to a dramatic discovery

Lower jaw: was of modern area

Cranium: originated from the late Pleistocene period

41

convergent evolution

the process by which different species evolve similar traits

same environment
same adaption

analogous:

different structures
same functions

42

Divergent evolution

is a process in which the descendants of a single ancestor diversify into species that each fit different parts of the environment

(specific structure)
(between 2 species)

different environment
different adaption

homologous:

similar structures
different functions

43

Adaptive radiation

like when a new population in a new environment, such as an island, will undergo divergent evolution until the population fills many parts of the environment

(the whole process)

44

A. Sediba as a transitional species has characteristics of:

A

species A

Cusp spacing -> between teeth

-

flexor, wrist

pelvis: four legged

45

A. Sediba as a transitional species has characteristics of:

B

mandibles, tooth size

clavicle man-shaped

long thumb, short fingers

pelvis: upright

46

taxonomy

the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms

47

homologous

from the Greek homo, meaning "equivalent to" and logos, meaning "relation" or "reason"

48

The phylogenic tree is created using the

the principles of homology

49

Mankind reached America

second and Switzerland first.

50

When mankind spread over the globe, this is called

adaptive radiation

51

How science works

it is based on observations
mechanisms are explained

52

1. How was the peppered moth studies performed (experiment)?


1. different traits (difference in the phenotype)
but both forms belong to the same species!

gene that is responsible for the color of the peppered moth is the protein melanin and exists in two variations

high melanin production -> black color
only few melanin -> white months with some black specks

How the experiment took place: Moths of both forms have been bred, marked and then released. After some time, the moths were lured with bright lights during the night and recaptured. The number of recaptured animals has been counted.

53

2. What was the result?

Black Moths appear in cities

whereas withes in nature

due to the industrial revolution

54

3. Why is it no proof of evolution?

Because a proof of evolution needs many experiments and observations one is not enough. Plus it only explains the micro evolution ( changes in traits in populations over time)

55

4. How is a variation important for the process of natural selection?

Because the ones that adopt better to their environment are the ones to survive.

56

Why is it possible to find fossils in regions with dolomite? Explain two reasons (What preserves them for so long?)

1. It is rich in calc which over the years is washed out and caves and holes are formed. That can trap remains of animals.

2. calc-sinter is formed then minerals are precipitated out of the water and preserves the fossils.