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Flashcards in last minute ID Deck (48)
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1

Name the four classes of cell wall inhibitors

penicillins
cephalosporins
cabrpenems
glycopeptices

2

What drugs are in the penicillin class? What is the MOA

Benzyl penicillins (penicillin G, penicillin V)
Aminopenicillin (ampicillin, amoxicillin)
Isoxazyolyl penicillin (cloxacillin, methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin)

All of the above are beta-lactams

3

What is the MOA of penicillins?

Bactericidal
Beta lactam inhibits cell wall synthesis

4

What is special about amox-clav and pip-tazo?

They pair a beta lactam (amoxicillin, piperacillin)

with a beta-lactamase inhibitor (clavulanate, tazobactam)

Some bacteria produce beta-lactamase: this counters that.

5

What is the mechanism of action of cephalosporins?

Bactericidal
Beta lactam inhibits cell wall synthesis
Less susceptible to penicillinases

6

What are the subgroups of cephalosporins?

Generations
1: cephalexin (Keflex), cefazolin (Ancef)
2: cefuroxime, cefprozil
3: cefixime, ceftriaxone
4: cefepime

7

What is the MOA of carbapenems?

Beta lactam inhibits cell wall synthesis

8

What drugs are in the carbapenem class?

imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem

9

What is the MOA of glycopeptides?

glycopeptid sterically inhibits cell wall synthesis

10

What drugs are in the glycopeptide class?

Vancomycin only

11

What Abx classes are protein synthesis inhibitors?

50S ribosome:
- Macrolides
- Lincosamides

30S ribosome:
- Aminoglycosides
- Tetracyclines

12

Which drugs are macrolides?

erythromycin
clarithromycin
azithromycin

13

Which drugs are lincosamides?

clindamycin
chloramphenicol
linezolid

14

Which drugs are aminoglycosides?

gentamycin
tobramycin
amikacin

15

Which drugs are tetracyclines?

tetracycline
minocucline
doxycycline
tigecycline

16

Which drugs are topoisomerase (DNA) inhibitors?

fluoroquinolones:

ciprofloxacin
norfloxacin
ofloxacin

Respiratory:
Levofloxicin
moxifloxacin

17

Which drugs are anti-metabolites?

trimethoprim-sulfamethazole (Septra, Bactrim)
nitrofurantoin

18

Which drugs are anti-mycobacterials?

isoniazid
rifampin
ethambutol
pyrazinamide

19

Name the classes of antifungals

polyenes
- amphociterin B, nystatin
imidazoles
- clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole
triazoles
- fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole
allylamines
- terbinafine
echinocandins
- caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin

20

What are the most common causes of acute rhinitis? What antimicrobial should be used?

rhinovirus, coronavirus, influenza, RSV, parainfluenza, adenovirus

None

21

What are the most common causes of pharyngitis? What antimicrobial should be used?

rhinovirus, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, coxsackievirus, coronavirus

None

22

What are the most common causes of strep pharyngitis?
What antimicrobial should be used?

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

Penicillin, then macrolide (eg erythromycin), then cephalosporin (eg cephalexin)

23

What are the most common causes of sinusitis?
What antimicrobial should be used?

S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. aureus

Penicillin, Penicillin/beta-lactamase inhibitor, cephalosporin in kids fluoroquinolone in adults

24

What are the most common causes of bronchitis?
What antimicrobial should be used?

H. influenzae, parainfluenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus, RSV

None

25

What are the most common causes of CAP (outpt w/o comorbidity)?
What antimicrobial should be used?

S. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae

Penicillin, or one of the macrolides (-romycin); 2nd line is doxycycline

26

What are the most common causes of CAP (outpt w/ comorbidity)?
What antimicrobial should be used?

S. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, H. influenzae

Beta lactam, plus macrolide or doxy, or -floxacine

27

What are the most common causes of diarrhea?
What antimicrobial should be used?

Enterotoxogenic e. coli, ampylobacter, salmonella, shigella, viruses, protozoa

If >3BM/d, fever, blood:
fluoroquinolone (-floxacin), or if SE asia azithryomycin

28

What are the most common causes of diarrhea after Abx?
What antimicrobial should be used?

c. diff!

mild-mod: metronidazole
Severe (WBC>15, Cr >1.5x baseline): vancomycin

29

What are the most common causes of PUD?
What antimicrobial should be used?

H pylori (after NSAIDs)

Penicillin + macrolide (clarithromycin), + PPI.

30

What is the treatment for gonorrhea/chlamydia?

ceftriaxone 250mgIM + azithromycin 1g PO
or, doxycycline