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1

How dense is the population of the oral cavity microbiom?

Very densely populated

2

Does the entire mouth contain the same uniform type of microflora?

No, differeent regions are colonized by different types of bacteria

3

How much of the microflora in the oral cavity has not been established?

Half! Very complex

4

How is the skin's microbiome distributed?

Thinly spread out over large surface area

5

What type of bacteria is skin microbiome dominated by?

Gram +

6

What part of the urinary tract is not sterile?

distal region of urethra

7

How is the vaginal microflora populated?

Densely

8

What is the predominant bacteria in vaginal microflora?

lactobacilli

9

What is the microflora of the upper respiratory tract like?

Complex

10

What is the composition of the uper respiratory tract's microflora dependent on?

Anatomical site

11

How are the microflora of the lungs and internal tissues similar?

normally sterile

12

What 4 parts is the GI tract made up of?

Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon

13

What is the population density of the colon versus the stomach?

Stomach: sparcely populated

Colon: very densely populated

14

Which part of the human body contains most of the bacteria inhabiting humans? How much?

GI Tract

10^14

15

What are commensals?

Microorganisms normally found on healthy individuals

16

Do commensals cause infection?

No, commensals colonize the body without infecting it

17

How many microbes are on the skin?

10^12

18

How many microbes are in the mouth?

10^10

19

How many microbes are in the GI tract? What is the weight equivalent?

10^14

1 kg

20

Where are most of the GI tract's microbes located? What %? Aerobic or anaerobic?

Colon
90%
Anaerobic

21

What 4 factors influence the richness and abundance of microorganisms on an individual?

1. Temp
2. pH
3. Nutrient supply
4. Immune system (genetic factor)

22

In what 3 ways can commensals be beneficial?

1. provide host with vitamins and metabolic pathways (gut)
2. Protect against new incoming microbial populations (guard their territory)
3. Teach the immune system

23

Do all animals contain the same commensals?

No, commensals in one animal's body may harm a different animal

24

Can commensals become parasitic/pathogenic?

Yes under specific conditions

25

What are pathogens?

Microbial parasites that are unable to cause infection

26

What is an infection?

A situation in which a microorganism is established and growing in a host, causing damage.

27

What is a disease?

Damage or injury to the host that impairs host function

28

What is pathogenicity?

ability of a parasite to inflict damage to the host

29

What is virulence?

measure of pathogenicity

30

What are opportunistic pathogens? Does the normal microbiom contain opportunistic pathogens?

Ones that cause disease only in the absence of normal host resistance.

yes