Latin America Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Latin America Key Terms Deck (45):
1

Slash-and burn agriculture

Farming method in which trees and other plants on a plot of land are cut down and burned and ash is used for fertilizer

2

Quetzal

Colorful tropical bird

3

Hieroglyphic

Symbol that stands for a word, idea, or sound

4

Basin

Bowl-shaped area

5

Chinampa

Artificial island built by the Aztecs

6

Dike

A wall a hold back water

7

Aqueduct

A canal or pipe that carries fresh water

8

Conquistador

Conqueror in Spanish; a leader in the Spanish conquests of America, Mexico and Peru in the Sixteenth century.

9

Encomienda

Right granted by the Spanish government to its American colonists to demand labor or tribute from American Indians

10

Penisular

In Spanish colonial America, a person born in Spain

11

Creole

A language that mixes two or more parent languages

12

Mestizo

In Spanish colonial America, a person of mixed Spanish and American Indian ancestry

13

Mulatto

In Spanish colonial America, a person of African and European descent

14

Columbian Exchange

Exchange of people, plants and animals and ideas between the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere

15

Nationalize

Government taking ownership of a company or industry

16

Embargo

A complete ban trade with a country

17

Diaspora

A movement of people from their homeland to other places

18

Cultural diffusion

The spread of cultural traits from one culture to another

19

Ecotourism

Tourism that focuses on the environment seeks to minimize environmental impact

20

Specialization

Act of concentrating on a limited number of goods or activities

21

Interdependence

The state of people or countries being dependent on one another

22

Infrastructure

Body of public works, such as roads, bridges, and hospitals, that a country needs to support a modern economy

23

Cartel

A group of businesses that control an industry

24

Digital divide

A wide gap in access to the internet

25

Domesticate

To change the growth of plants or behavior of animals in ways that are useful for humans

26

Nomad

Person who moves from place to place without a permanent home

27

Andes

A mountain range that runs along the western edge of South America

28

Terrace

A strip of level land cut into a mountain slope that is planted with crops

29

Quipu

Record-keeping device made of knotted strings, used by the Incas

30

Hierarchy

System for ranking members of a group per their importance

31

Ayllu

In Incan society, a group of related families that pooled its resources to meet peoples need

32

Mita system

Incan system of payment of taxes with labor

33

Line of Demarcation

Line set by the Treaty of Tordesillas dividing the non-European world into two zones, one controlled by Spain and one controlled by Portugal

34

Treaty of Tordesillas

Treaty signed between Spain and Portugal in 1494 that divided the non-European world between them

35

Mechanization

Use of machines to do work that had been done by animals or humans

36

coup

Sudden violent overthrow of government, often by force

37

Ethnic group

Group of people who share a distinct culture, language, and identity

38

telenovela

Long serial drama made for television

39

Diversified

Depending on a variety of exports or products

40

Privatize

To sell government-owned businesses to private individuals and groups

41

Literacy rate

A locations rate of people able to read or write

42

Corruption

Use of power for personal gain

43

Deforestation

Loss of forest cover that results from so many trees being removed that trees cannot grow back

44

Free trade zone

Area within which all countries can freely trade with one another

45

Nongovernmental organization

Group, usually nonprofit, that operates with private funding