Flashcards in Learning from past mistakes: Canada and the Durham Report 1837-40 Deck (107):
When was Upper and Lower Canada created?
What was Canada pre-1763?
What change occurred in Upper Canada in 1825?
Free land grants were axed (due to high USA immigration) and sale-by-auction was introduced
What did the Canada Company receive in 1825?
A Royal Charter to aid colonisation and development of the province
What occurred in the executive council in Upper Canada between 1810-1840 and why?
The Family Compact grew in power as the lieutenant governor could not remove them constitutionally
How many members were there in the legislative assembly and council?
No fewer than 16 in the assembly and 7 in the council
What did the Family Compact support?
Anglican Church, allegiance to the crown
Why was the legislature in Canada so broken?
The council could block the bills of the assembly
What was the main religion in Upper Canada?
Non-Anglican ie Baptist, Methodist and Congressionalist
What was a seventh of land used for in UC?
Clergy reserves, with all profits going to the Anglican Church
Why were clergy reserves an issue in UC?
They were not supported by the majority of Christians in UC but the Family Compact made sure they would never be banned
What was the population in Upper Canada in 1835 and why was this a problem?
350,000, so small that the government struggled to pay for the large infrastructure projects of the time
How was the UC legislative assembly side-stepped?
In paying for infrastructure, instead of raising taxes through the assembly (where they might be able to direct funds more) the councils sold land to the Canada Company
Who was the father of responsible government?
What was the land tenure system in Lower Canada?
Basically feudal, with seigneurs handing out land to habitants
What percentage of LC lived by the seigneurial system and why?
75-80% since the government protected the habitants with their contracts
What did the 1774 Quebec Act allow?
French land tenure, civil law, and also free practise of Catholicism
What was the main issue in the rules of the assemblies in LC?
The language was English, yet the French were fiercely protective of their culture
How did the Chateau Clique grow?
Governors usually appointed those loyal to the crown to the councils
What occurred in LC during 1820s?
Rural stagnation blamed on seigneurial system, calls for united (British majority therefore) Canada which were rejected harshly by French, so dropped, leaving a foul taste in the French populations mouths
Who were the patriotes?
Pro-seigneurial/French law educated professionals of LC, who wish to protect French culture with some revolutionary undertones
What occurred in LC between 1820-28?
Lord Dalhousie was Governor, who stopped a patriote leader of the legislative assembly coming into power as speaking, causing the civil list problems, before being booted by London for unpopularity (87,000 signed a petition for his removal)
What occurred in the UK in 1828?
A Lower Canadian delegation arrived with complaints, and as a result the Canada Committee was set up
What did the Canada Committee offer as a solution in 1829?
Amendments to 1791 Constitution, and that the governor manages it well - no mechanism for change
What occurred in the UK in 1830?
Whig government came to power with aim to reform Canada, but became bogged down in Great Reform Act before reaching it
What was passed in 1831?
Howick Act which gave the assemblies the revenues from duties, but still the civil list did not pass
What were the 4 reasons for revolt in Upper Canada?
Radicalism within Reform Party, Emigration from Britain, Governing of province and 1836 election
Who was the main radical voice of the Reform Party and why was he effective?
William Lyon Mackenzie, who's newspaper had been attacked by sons of the Family Compact in 1826 aiding his cause as a persecuted man
Where was emigration from in the 1830s and why did it irritate Upper Canada?
The impoverished, disease ridden Irish, aided by the tax swallowing Ops Township Scheme were blamed for cholera epidemics in 1832 and 1834
Who was Governor of Lower Canada 1828-35?
Sir John Colbourne
What 3 things did Colbourne get wrong?
Bypassed legislative assembly using tax revenues for Civil List, built Prep Schools not a university, and used clergy reserve money to fund Anglican churches
Who was Governor of Lower Canada 1835-38?
Sir Francis Bond Head
What did Francis Head do wrong?
Sacked moderates in executive council when they disagreed with him, and campaigned against Reformers in 1836, a break from tradition
What did Head do post-1836 election?
Extended the life of the current legislature and prevented those in the assembly to be executive councillors as well, aiding the Family Compact
What occurred after the 1838 election in UC?
Mackenzie set up the Committee of Correspondence and began drilling men
What sparked rebellion in UC?
Patriote imprisonment and LC rebellion
How many men were in the rebellion of UC and where were they?
1,000 men in Toronto (Montgomery's Tavern)
What were the general events of rebellion in UC?
With the intent on damaging Family Compact houses, the 1000 men marched, met gunfire on the same street they started on, most fled, 3 days later reinforcements from up the river by steamboat scattered them, ended up fighting in Brantford then escape to Niagara island
What was the result of rebellion in UC?
Only pro-British voices were heard, the rest went to America, were hanged or kept quiet - some understanding of failure of Family Compact
Who led to patriotes?
Louis-Joseph Papineau, from a seigneurial family, who led the legislative assembly though the 1830s, led the Patriot Party
What was Papineau's motivation/desires?
French nationalism, retention of seigneurial system, desire for true democracy ie British system - 92 resolutions
What occurred in 1832 in LC?
General election led to shots being fired into crowd - two men shot - by military due to tensions
What occurred in the LC legislative assembly from 1830-36?
Radical wing of Patriot Party became a strong voice for LC hardships, and blocked civil list a lot
How was the Gosford mission a failure from the start?
Francis Head told the UC legislation it's full brief, which was not much at all - they arrived in 1835
What did the Gosford mission do (or not do)?
Didn't tackle the main issues facing Canada in constitutional areas, and ended up with 10 Russell Resolutions passing rejecting 92 Resolutions
What occurred in the run up to the rebellion in LC?
Unrest and agitation following 10RR, public patriote meetings, calls for British goods boycott, increasing military presence, banks close in May, post-August there is preparations for revolt
What was the name of the paramilitary arm of the patriotes?
Société des Fils de la Liberté
Main battle of LC revolt
St Denis patriote victory, St Charles patriote loss, 100 patriotes shot in St Eustache
What occurs on the 5th of December 1837?
Martial Law is declared in LC by Lord Gosford
How many patriotes were put in gaol?
How many rebels were involved in LC revolt?
Maybe up to 13,000
What occurred on the 10th of February 1838?
1791 Constitution was revoked, Gosford fully in charge of LC
What was seen as necessary post-revolt in LC?
Rein in power of both French-Canadians and Chateau Clique, as well as change land tenure system
2 reasons why there was a fear of revolt in the Canadas after the events had taken place
If the events occurred in summer of 1838 there could have been a greater fight, and also the threat of American involvement, particularly with many rebels fleeing to the states after the skirmishes
Why was history perhaps too fond of Durham?
He was removed by London before he had time to disappoint his followers with carrying out reforms
Who did Lord Durham not listen to?
Those who had held power tightly previously - ie Chateau Clique and Family Compact
Lord Durham's character
Intelligent, wealthy, though often high-handed and touchy
How was Durham persuaded to lead the Canada Committee?
After the revolts he was more sure the events were important, and the queen sent a letter asking for his assistance
Who were the 2 trouble-makers in Durham's group of 8?
Gibbon Wakefield and Thomas Turton
How long was Durham in Canada?
What was Durham's first action on arrival?
Removing executive council with his advisors, and having all French depositions be sent to him for review
3 Changes Durham made to Canada while he was there
Creation of police force, good relations with USA, committee to look into land tenure reform in LC
How did Durham treat the rebels?
Freed most of them, but banished most guilty to Bermuda (London had only asked they beg guilty and become exiled)
Why did Durham resign?
The whig government did not defend him from a Bill of Indemnity from Lord Brougham, seen as censorship
Who was the most important interviewee for responsible self-government?
What was Wakefield's effect on the report?
Desire for systematic colonisation (not acted upon immediately) and also for reunification of Canadas, also worked a lot on Crown Lands section
What was Buller's influence on the report?
Sympathetic to French, desired responsible self-government, had the worst sent to Bermuda (actually very popular in Canada), also finished off drafting the report
3 changes Durham made with the report
Unification of Canadas, rescindment of Quebec Act, responsible self-government under Westminster Model
Why was the Quebec Act removed?
To improve the economic situation of the habitants and promote growth in the economy ie remove old system of land tenure
What are 2 criticisms of Durham's report?
It swept away previous rights of French-Canadians, and did not mention indigenous peoples
Why did LC support unification?
Most French rebels were in the USA, a special council ran the province
Why did UC support unification?
To rid itself of debt via tax collection of LC peoples
When did unification occur?
10th February 1841 in Montreal
What did the UC LA do in 1836 showing business interests in government?
Newly elected legislature passed law protecting Bank of UC from bankruptcy and all of Legislative Council attempted to get charters for their own banks
What did Mackenzie do in 1836 to increase interest in his Reformist ideas?
4th of July set up paper Constitution, including satires of Locke and Franklin planning a new Canadian Constitution
What shows the issue of the UC judiciary for Reformers?
Jury Law Amendment Bill was passed 4 times in 8 years
What were the casualties of the revolt in LC?
325 dead including 27 British soldiers, 100 rebel captured
What happened to Papineau after the revolt?
He lived in exile in Paris
When did Mackenzie return home?
Why were English-speakers becoming more important in LC?
Merchant class due to timber trade grew, mainly Anglophone
How did the French population change from 1812 in terms of identity?
A professional elite in the LA created a national identity of French-Canadians, separate from the Catholic Church and clerical respect (in terms of education policy) as well as British-Canadians
What were the parties of Papineau and when did he start?
Parti Canadien to Patriote Party in 1826, though he was Speaker of LC LA in 1815
Example of violence in LC pre-revolt
1832 3 French Canadians shot dead by British troops in electoral riots
Durham quote on LC
Two nations warring in the bosom of a single state
What are the two general arguments that the revolt was the fault of the British?
Poor constitutional set-up with few true democratic controls, and that the British didn't listen to the complaints of the Canadians
How much land did the Clergy Corporation and Canada Company own?
Who set up the Bank of Upper Canada?
William Allan and Rev. John Strachan, both members of legislative and executive council who used position to get government to subscribe for a quarter of shares, in 30s 1/3rd of the board were councillors
Who were used by the Mayor of Toronto to put down the revolt in UC?
317 Orangemen sworn into the local militia
What caused hard economic times in UC before the revolt?
1832 President Jackson not rechartering Second Bank of USA leading to depression in 1836-38 in Anglo-American world, as well as poor 1836 harvest
Why was the legal system in UC seen as unfair for the poorest?
There was a system of indefinite jailing for those who could not pay off debts, and in 1837 the new LA passed a law increasing punishment for farmers in the same predicament
How much debt did the colony have in 1836 for how many individuals in UC?
£1m across 400,000
How did the Durham Report change the judiciary?
Supreme Court created
Why was British North American not fully united after the Durham Report recommendation?
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia rejected the idea
How did Durham plan on recreating the LAs of the past?
What was Durham's description of the French?
A people with no literature and no history
What was Durham's description of the Chateau Clique?
A petty, corrupt, insolent Tory clique
When was self-government brought to Canada after the Durham Report?
1847 with first government created in 1848 in order to alleviate British financial issues
What was set up by who protesting Mackenzie's removal from the UC LA in 1832?
Dr Thomas Morrison in the UC Central Political Union which received 19,930 signatures
What was the LA like in 1834?
A Reformer majority
What were the 3 names Mackenzie's groups took?
Canadian Alliance Society, Constitutional Reform Society in 1836 and Toronto Political Union in 1837
What were set up in 1837 by Mackenzie and what did they do?
Vigilance Committees which sent delegates to a July Constitution Convention (these delegates would go onto run the rebellion) and by October the meetings turned to drilling men
How many loyalists fled the border after the war, and what percentage of the American-Canadian population were they in 1812?
7,000, soon to become 1 in 10 with the rest often being of a more reformist variety
Why did so many American come to Canada between the wars?
Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe offered free land grants, but by 1812 the government began to try to exclude Americans, leading to a dispute with the LA
Who went to support Mackenzie in the rebellion?
From London in west-UC, Charles Puncombe marched down to Toronto, only to be stooped in Hamilton on the 13th of December
What happened to reformers after the war?
Tories burnt their houses down
How many Americans and Canadians were sent to Van Diemen's Land for taking part in the rebellion?
93 Americans and 58 Canadians