Learning Theories Flashcards Preview

Motor Learning > Learning Theories > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Theories Deck (14)
Loading flashcards...
0

Classical conditioning

Pavlov

1

Behaviorism

Thorndike
Trial and error
Mechanical
Problem solving

Law of exercise - repetition
Law of effect
Identical elements theory of transfer

2

Instrumental conditioning

Skinner

Atheoretical
Architect of behavior is the teacher
Not classical no sr bonds
Emphasize environment
Manip conditions
Emphasize response
Shaping followed by satiater


3

Successive approximations

4 steps

1. ID starting point
2. ID potential
3. Design intermediate steps
4. Implement and practice

4

Schedules of reinforcement

Continuous
Ratio
Variable ratio
Interval

5

gagne

5 types of learning
1. motor skills
2. verbal information
3. intellectual skills
4. cognitive strategies
5. attitude

6

Melton

1.classical conditioning
2. rote verbal learning
3.probability learning
4. short term memory
5.concept learning
6. problem solving
7. perceptual motor skills

7

cognitive theory

gestault

thinking and perception of individual
1 clients matter
2 means to an end
3 environment and mind: happiness is a choice
4 insight
5 sporadic and unpredictable

physical reality -> perception -> behavior

law of proximity : learn by grouping things together
law of similarity
law of continuation oxoxox whats next in patter

law of closer : ------- line not dashes


8

information processing

internal
mental operations
motor decisions
appropriate response
quickly and accurately
6 operations: identify, anticipate, categorize, retrieve, review, store

3 stages discrete from eachother

1 stimulus ID
2 response selection
3 movement/response programming

Reaction time : speed and effectiveness

hicks law: RT increases at constant rate as # of SR alternatives increases

9

novice vs expert

sense organs

filter attention

perception

10

practical implications

1. kiss
2. basic and applied strategies
3. reduce visual field
4. show actual speed
5. cues prior to stimuli
6. 1 sub skill at a time
7. quiet and free from distractions
8. reduce uncertainty
9. STM
10. practice in closed environment first
11. novice take longer to perceive / react to stimuli
alter size, distance, weight
more time between trials
12. KR = positive, keep it specific, measurable
consistent not constant, offer KR ASAP

11

Cratty's 3 level theory 66

base: general supports of behavior ie personal traits
middle: perceptual motor ability traits ie speed strength
top: task specific, ie environment FB coach

12

closed loop adams 1970

2 types of feed back --> direct and natural

1. exteroception, vision, hearing
2. proprioception info about state of body

perceptual trace
memory trace
model trace
error nulling

good for unpracticed skills

13

open loop keele 1968

movements are preplanned
motor program
no FB until after movement
good for existing programs not for unpracticed skills