Lect 2- History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lect 2- History Deck (16):
1

Scientific Method

HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE PROCESS
observe
question
form hypothesis
testable predictions
gather data
refine/alter
back to devo testable prediction then finally theory!

2

Proximate Vs. Ultimate Questions

Proximate: Immediate cause of trait, behavior (molecular, chemical mech, etc.)

Ultimate: How trait, behavior came to be over time (historical, evolutionary forces)

3

Essentialism

-Plato/Aristotle EDIOS
-everything had a transcendental form
-variation is accident
-424-322 BC

4

Scala Naturae

-higher and lower forms of life
-creationism is an ordered plan
-order better than disorder
-creater made everything perfect TF no change over time

5

System Naturae

Framework of modern classification by Carolus Linneaus

6

Uniformitarianism

-James Hutton and Charles Lyell
-"present is key to past"
-influenced Darwin
-1726-1875

7

Lamark

-1st coherent model of evo
-spp constantly being generated TF some spp older and more developed
-spontaneous generation from non-living matter - start at bottom of chain of being
-inheritability of acquired traits (strongly exercised organs got more "nervous fluid" and developed more)
-wrong but now seen in epigenetics

8

John Gould

-noticed mocking birds from neighboring islands were different spp
-influenced D regarding different spp evolved from one ancestor

9

Thomas Malthus

-if human pop growth faster than food production = famine
-influenced D regarding "struggle for existance"

10

Natural Selection

superior features survive and reproduce more successfully than inferior features

11

Evolution

if inherited, then average character can be changed over time

12

Alfred Russell Wallace

sent D manuscript on natural selection but D had more evidence

13

Darwin's Evo Theory

EVOLUTION- characteristics of lineages change over time
COMMON DESCENT- all life w/o exception descended from one or a few original forms
GRADUALISM- incremental over time
POPULATION CHANGE- Evolution from changes in proportions of individuals in populations
NATURAL SELECTION- changes in proportions of individuals in populations due to ability to survive and reproduce bc more fit for environment

14

Mendel

PARTICULATE INHERITANCE
pea pod experiments to prove that traits are inherited by particles over time, not blending "fluids" 1865

15

Modern Synthesis

Darwinian Evo Theory reconciled with genetics, paleontology

16

Population Genetics

Haldane, Fisher, Seawal Wright ID mutation raw material for natural selection