lect-22 Pulmonary ventilation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in lect-22 Pulmonary ventilation Deck (42):
1

what is respiratory epithelium

pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

2

what type of cartilage rings are in the trachea

incomplete cartilaginous rings

3

where are the carina located and what are they sensitive to

inside trachea at point of branching of primary bronchi
sensitive to irruption
produces cough reflex

4

what do the primary bronchi supply to

lungs

5

what do the secondary bronchi supply

lobes

6

what do the tertiary bronchi supply

lobules

7

what type of cartilage is in bronchioles

NONE

8

where is the first place in the respiratory tree that you can get gas exchange

respiratory branches of bronchioles

9

what respiratory muscles are inspiratory

respiratory diaphragm
external intercostal muscles (limited)
sternomastoids
serratus anterior muscles
scalene muscles

10

what muscles are form forceful expiration

abdominal muscles
internal intercostals

11

define total lung capacity

maximum volume of gas the lungs can hold

12

define volumes

distinct, non-overlapping sub-compartments referred to as lung volumes

13

define tidal volume

500 ml
volume of air that is inspired or expired with each breath at rest

14

define inspiratory reserve volume

3000 ml
volume of air that can be inspired in addition to tidal volume with forceful inspiration

15

define expiratory reserve volume

1100ml
additional volume of air that can be expired at end of tidal volume by forceful expiration

16

define residual volume

1200 ml
volume of air remaining in lungs after forceful expiration

17

define vital capacity

4600 ml
sum of all the volumes that can be inspired or exhaled
inspiration to the max extent plus expiration to the max extent

18

define total lung capacity

5800 ml
the sum of all the volumes= vital capacity plus residual volume

19

define inspiratory capacity

3500 ml
the sum of volumes above resting capacity= tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume

20

define functional residual capacity

2300 ml
the sum of volumes below resting capacity= expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

21

define minute ventilation

total volume of gases moved into or out of the lungs per minute

22

define alveolar ventilation

total volume of gases that enter spaces participating in gas exchange per minute

23

what is found in the anatomical dead space

trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

24

what is found in the physiological dead space

anatomical dead space + ventilated alveoli with poor or absent perfusion

25

what is the total dead space in a normal person

0.15 liters

26

what is the normal tidal volume

0.35 liters

27

what does the amount of CO2 in regions of lungs involved in gas exchange equal

that of arterial blood

28

define pleural pressure

pressure of the fluid between parietal pleura and the visceral pleura

29

define alveolar pressure

pressure of the air inside of the alveoli

30

define transpulmonary pressure

difference between the alveolar pressure and the pleural pressure

31

how is pleural pressure measured

measured in centimeters of water

32

what is pleural pressure during inspiration and expiration

inspiration: -5 to -7.5 cm H2O
expiration: -7.5 to -5 cm H2O

33

define compliance

the extent (volume) to which lungs will expand for each unit increase in the transpulmonary pressure

34

what is normal compliance

200 ml air per cm of water

35

define compliance in terms of the trachea

measure of the expansibility of the lungs and trachea

36

what are the elastic forces of the lungs depicted in the compliance diagram

elastic forces of lung tissue
surface tension within the alveoli

37

what happens when there is an absence of surface tension forces

ease with which lungs can be expanded

38

define elastance

measure of the tendency of a hollow viscus to recoil toward its original dimensions upon removal of a distending or collapsing force

39

what are the most important components of surfactant

dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (a phospholipid)
surfactant apoproteins
calcium ions

40

what produces surfactant

type 2 alveolar cells

41

what happens if air passages leading from the alveoli are blocked, the surface tension in the alveoli collapses the alveoli?

positive pressure is created in the alveoli

42

what happens to the pressure in the alveoli as the radius increases

pressure decreases