Lect Wk2 Flashcards Preview

Renal > Lect Wk2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lect Wk2 Deck (41):
1

where does the esophagus start

start: neck at the pharyngo-seophageal junction of the cricoid cartilage

2

what does the esophagus enter the thoracic cavity via

superior thoracic apendature

3

3 cavities of the thoracic cavity

left pleural
right pleural
mediastinum

4

2 apertures of the thoracic cavity

superior and inferior divided by diaphragm

5

divisions of mediastinum

sup and inf
ant, mid and pos

6

where are the anatomical constrictions of the esophagus

neck at junction with pharynx
sup. mediastinum by the aortic arch
pos ms by the left main bronchus
passage of diaphragm

7

2 types of smooth muscle

multi unit and single unit

8

examples of single unit smooth muscle

GIT
ureters
uterus
BV
Bile ducts

9

examples of multiunit smooth muscle

Irish
ciliary muscle of eye
piloerector muscle of hair follicle

10

what is the latch mechanism

in muscles, facilitates prolonged contraction of the muscle without fatiguing

11

types of neurotransmitters

- acetylcholine (excitory)
- norepinrphrine (inhibitory)

12

membrane action potentials in smooth muscle

Spike
- electrical
- hormones

Action potential with plateaus
- muscle stays contracted e.g. uterus

13

what is the myentric plexus

increases tonic contraction of the gut , lies between longitudinal and circular muscles

14

what is the submucosal plexus

controls intestinal secretion and absorption

15

autonomic control of the GIT

sympathetic trunk of vagus nerve

16

cholecystokinin

digestive enzyme stimulates gall bladder secretion

17

what connects the abdominal and pelvic cavity

pelvic inlet

18

subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity

greater sac and lesser sac

19

examples of mesentery on

small intestine
transverse colon
sigmoid colon
appendix

20

3 parts of the primordial gut

foregut
midgut
hindgut

21

derivatives of the foregut

pharynx
respiratory system
esophagus and stomach
duodenum
liver
pancreas

22

Stomach
blood supply and innervation

intraperitoneal
BS- celiac trunk
N- parasympathetic vagus

23

motor function of the stomach

mixing waves begin at top of stomach, become powerful peristaltic waves

24

4 cells in the stomach

mucous: secrete mucous to neutralis

Parietal: HCl and intrinsic factor to absorb B12

chief cells: pepsinogen

G: gastrin,

25

secretion of parietal cells relies on stimuli

gastrin hormone
acetylcholine
histamine

26

3 phases of gastric secretion

Cephalic: taste stimulates parasympathetic system, starts secretion

Gastric:
1. local nervous secretory reflexes,
2. vagal reflexes
3. gastrin, histamine stimulation

Intestinal: nervous and hormonal mechanisms

27

what are stomach ulcers caused by

H. pylori

28

Drugs that treat ulcers

antibiotics, antacids, H2 receptor agonists, proton pump inhibitors

29

duodenum position anatomically

top - L1
desce- L1-L3
horizon- crosses IVC, aorta and L3
ascen- L2

30

Where/what are Brunners glands

located in duodenum
secrete alkaline mucous
increase stimulis by vagus
sympathetic stimuli decreases

31

pancreas

retroperitoneal
lies transversely in front of L1 and L2
posterior to stomach
duodenum right, spleen left
head, neck, body and tail

32

3 pancreatic digestive enzymes

proteins

Tripsinogen - proteins to peptides
Chymotrypsinogen - proteins to peptides
Procarboxypeptidase - peptides to amino acids

33

carb pancreatic digestive enzyme

pancreatic amylase

34

pancreatic enzyme for fats

pancreatic lipase- hydrolysis neutral fat

cholesterol esterase - cholesterol esters

phosolipase

35

what secretes bicarbonate ions

epithelial cells in pancreas large amounts

36

what regulates pancreatic secretion

acetylcholine from vagus nerve
cholecystokinin from duodenum
secretin from duodenal mucosa

37

Liver

largest gland in the body
right hypochondrium and epigastric region

deep to ribs 7-11

38

surfaces of liver

diaphragmatic and visceral

39

lobes of liver

right, left, caudate and quadrate

40

blood supply of liver

portal vein and hepatic artery

41

what is bile mostly made of

water