Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (26):

1

## 10 confilcting needs for reservoir

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drinking water

irrigation

flood control /drough control

industry

recreation

ecosystems

river stability

hydropower

commercial navigation

quality

2

## what is a hydrolgoical model

### simplified math representation of hydrological process that form the cycle

3

## difference bewteen hydrological modelling and hydraulic modelling

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hydrological- applied in hydrographic basins where precipitation events are transformed into dischatrges

hydrauli involves flood propagation in river

4

## two main model classificaitons

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physical

Numerical

5

## purpose of a hydrological model

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processes that cant be observerd

predictions( forescast, scenarios)

designs

6

## what is a state variable

### set of variables that show the effect of its history in terms of its response in the future

7

## what is a paramter

### measurable characteristic , usually a constant in a single simulation. Only changed when you need to asjust model behavour

8

## two main typoes of hydrological model

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deterministic-physical processes

stochastic-based on data and porobabilities

9

## three types of deterministic

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physically based

conceptual-semi emperical -inter connected reservoirs

Observation orientated based on input and output time series

10

## ways of breaking a domain up for deterministic modelling

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LUMPED- abc model

SEMI-DISTRIBUTED-top net

DISTRIBUTED-swat

11

## lumped explaination

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-done vare for spatial variability of anything

usses averaged values

average parameters meands average processes--but because of non linearity and threshold -big errors

12

## Distributed model explaianation

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spatial variation

divided into number of eleements-runoff calculated individually and joined

13

## three time scale classificaiton

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event based

continuous

large time scales

14

## four space scale cladssifications

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small (less than 100 km2)

medium (100-1000 km2)

large (>1000 km2)

global

15

## Physically based model advantages

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advanced process description

good for small scale

paramaters measured in field

application sot ungauged basins possible

low number of calibrated parameters

16

## Physically based model dis advantages

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only small scales

too simple for fast processes

complecated maths

material relation on linear

high input data

high number of parameters

17

## conceptual model advan

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simple discription processes

not complicated math

good large performance

low inpu tdatat

low number of parameters

18

## conceptual dis ad

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too simple process

require calibration-optimum not unique

land changes difficult

ungauged difficult

needs relation between parameters and catchmet characterisitics

19

## emperical advant

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simple form

simple parameter estimations

include emperical knowledege (like floods occur during snow melt)

20

## emerpical dis

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no processes included

no understanding or insight

not applicable to other places

land use and changes make not valid

21

## difference between model and program

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model-equations that rperesent behavoiur

program-code that runs solver for equations

22

## 5 things to remember when modelling

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evaluate data

doco assumpotions

plan simualtions

review output

document results

23

##
inputs

storage and transfer

outputs

what are the function names fotr these

###
forcing function

process function

response function

24

## three things you need for a hydrologiucal model

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meterological data

Basin model( connectivity etc)

control spcificaitons (duration, time steps)

25

## 4 modelling components

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input

system characteristics

governing equations

initial and boundary equaiotns

output

26