Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

Water Resource Engineering > Lecture 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (26):
1

10 confilcting needs for reservoir

drinking water
irrigation
flood control /drough control
industry
recreation
ecosystems
river stability
hydropower
commercial navigation
quality

2

what is a hydrolgoical model

simplified math representation of hydrological process that form the cycle

3

difference bewteen hydrological modelling and hydraulic modelling

hydrological- applied in hydrographic basins where precipitation events are transformed into dischatrges

hydrauli involves flood propagation in river

4

two main model classificaitons

physical
Numerical

5

purpose of a hydrological model

processes that cant be observerd
predictions( forescast, scenarios)
designs

6

what is a state variable

set of variables that show the effect of its history in terms of its response in the future

7

what is a paramter

measurable characteristic , usually a constant in a single simulation. Only changed when you need to asjust model behavour

8

two main typoes of hydrological model

deterministic-physical processes
stochastic-based on data and porobabilities

9

three types of deterministic

physically based
conceptual-semi emperical -inter connected reservoirs
Observation orientated based on input and output time series

10

ways of breaking a domain up for deterministic modelling

LUMPED- abc model
SEMI-DISTRIBUTED-top net
DISTRIBUTED-swat

11

lumped explaination

-done vare for spatial variability of anything
usses averaged values
average parameters meands average processes--but because of non linearity and threshold -big errors

12

Distributed model explaianation

spatial variation
divided into number of eleements-runoff calculated individually and joined

13

three time scale classificaiton

event based
continuous
large time scales

14

four space scale cladssifications

small (less than 100 km2)
medium (100-1000 km2)
large (>1000 km2)
global

15

Physically based model advantages

advanced process description
good for small scale
paramaters measured in field
application sot ungauged basins possible
low number of calibrated parameters

16

Physically based model dis advantages

only small scales
too simple for fast processes
complecated maths
material relation on linear
high input data
high number of parameters

17

conceptual model advan

simple discription processes
not complicated math
good large performance
low inpu tdatat
low number of parameters

18

conceptual dis ad

too simple process
require calibration-optimum not unique
land changes difficult
ungauged difficult
needs relation between parameters and catchmet characterisitics

19

emperical advant

simple form
simple parameter estimations
include emperical knowledege (like floods occur during snow melt)

20

emerpical dis

no processes included
no understanding or insight
not applicable to other places

land use and changes make not valid

21

difference between model and program

model-equations that rperesent behavoiur
program-code that runs solver for equations

22

5 things to remember when modelling

evaluate data
doco assumpotions
plan simualtions
review output
document results

23

inputs
storage and transfer
outputs

what are the function names fotr these

forcing function
process function
response function

24

three things you need for a hydrologiucal model

meterological data
Basin model( connectivity etc)
control spcificaitons (duration, time steps)

25

4 modelling components

input
system characteristics
governing equations
initial and boundary equaiotns
output

26

what are some sources of uncertainty

input data error ( observation error, interpolation error)
system parameters
modelling (process representation)
output measurement error