Lecture 1- Introduction, overview of neuroanatomy, overview of neurological disorders Flashcards Preview

PT 856- Neuromotor Function > Lecture 1- Introduction, overview of neuroanatomy, overview of neurological disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1- Introduction, overview of neuroanatomy, overview of neurological disorders Deck (38):
1

What are the 2 division of the nervous system

Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

2

What are the main components in the CNS

1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord

3

What are the main components in the PNS

1. Cranial nerves and ganglia
2. spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia
3. sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and ganglia
4. enteric nervous system

4

Describe gray matter

- mainly cell bodies
- dendrites

5

Describe white matter

- primarily myelinated axons

6

What are the four main areas of the brain

1. Cerebral Hemispheres
2. Diencephalon
3. Brain Stem
4. Cerebellum

7

What components are in the cerebral hemisphere

- cerebral cortex
- subcortical white matter
- basal ganglia
- other deep nuclei

8

What components are in the diencephalon

- thalamus
- hypothalamus

9

what components are in the brainstem

- midbrain
- pons
- medulla oblongata

10

what are the 4 areas of the spinal cord

1. cervical cord
2. thoracic cord
3. lumbar cord
4. sacral cord

11

What are the 3 orientation planes of the brain

1. coronal plane
2. horizontal plane
3. sagittal plane

12

How much does the human brain weigh

about 3 pounds

13

the brain uses ___% of all the blood pumped from the heart

15-20%

14

the brain has about ____ billion nerve cells (neurons)

100

15

__% of cerebral oxygen consumption by white matter

6

16

__% of cerebral oxygen consumption by gray matter

94

17

spinal cord contains about __ billion neurons

1

18

The spinal cords main function is _____ control of limb and _____ movement

1. sensorimotor
2. trunk

19

the spinal cord receives and processes ____ information from the ____ to the muscles

1. motor
2. brain

20

the spinal cord receives and processes _____ information from the ___, ____ and muscles of limbs and trunk

1. sensory
2. skin
3. joints

21

The brain stem consists of 3 things

1. medulla
2. pons
3. midbrain

22

What are the brainstems 4 major functions

1. influence movement, posture and muscle tone
2. controls respiration, BP and HR
3. controls level of consciousness
4. contains nuclei of cranial nerves

23

main function of the thalamus

gatekeeper to cerebral cortex

24

the thalamus is the relay station that ____ and ___ most info reaching ____ cortex from the rest of CNS and ___

1. transmits
2. processes
3. cerebral
4. PNS

25

main function of the hypothalamus

- regulates autonomic, endocrine and visceral function in close association with pituitary gland

26

the hypothalamus maintains ____ in the body

homeostasis

27

the main function of the cerebellum

- important role in integrating sensory and other inputs from the brain and spinal cord

28

cerebellum integrates sensory and other inputs from the brain and spinal cord for 4 purposes

1. muscle tone and body posture
2. balance control
3. coordination of movements
4. regulation of eye movements

29

what are the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex

1. frontal lobe
2. parietal lobe
3. temporal lobe
4. occipital lobe

30

what is the main functions of the frontal lobe

- motor execution
- thinking
- planning
- executive fucntions

31

what is the main functions of the parietal lobe

- somatosensory perception
- ex: touch, pressure, temp., proprioception, nociception

32

what is the main functions of the temporal lobe

- language function
- auditory perception

33

what is the main functions of the occipital lobe

- visual perception
- processing

34

what are 5 disorders of the CNS

1. compromised circulation
2. neurodegeneration
3. altered immune function
4. infection
5. trauma

35

define PNS disorders

- system wide compromise of peripheral nervous system functioning

36

define neuromuscular disorders

- system wide compromise of neuromuscular junction integrity

37

define muscle disorders

system wide compromise of muscle contraction mechanism

38

What are some functions that may be altered by neurological disorders?

- movement of trunk and limbs
- balance and coordination
- movement of muscles related to breathing
- somatosensation
- special senses: vision, hearing, olfaction, taste, vestibular
- language
- spatial awareness
- memory, executive function and other cognition
- consciousness, awareness, orientation
- regulation of maintenance functions via autonomic system