Flashcards in Lecture #17: Urine Concentration and Dilution Deck (34)
What is the maximum urine concentration that the kidneys can produce?
The kidney can produce a maximal urine concentration of 1200 to 1400 mOsm/L.
What is required by the kidney tubules for the formation of a concentrated urine?
Requirements for forming a concentrated urine:
> presence of ADH
> high osmolarity of renal medullary interstitial tubule
- establishes osmotic gradient necessary for water reabsorption to occur.
Explain why there is an obligatory volume of excreted urine of 0.5 liters per day.
> A normal 70-kg human must excrete about 600 mOsm of solute each day in order to get rid of waste products of metabolism and ions that are ingested.
> Maximal urine concentrating ability = 1200 mOsm/L
> 600 mOsm / day / 1200 mOsm/L = 0.5 L/day
**refer to text regarding determination of urine specific gravity, figure 29-3.......if needed.
How do we excrete a dilute urine?
Ascending thick limb of Henle:
- sodium, potassium, chloride are avidly reabsorbed
- this segment is impermeable to water
- tubular fluid becomes more dilute as it flows up the ascending loop of henle
- osmolarity is about 100 mOsm/L at the early distal tubular segment
** note that whether ADH is present or not does not matter at this point!
Late distal convoluted tubule:
- additional reabsorption of sodium chloride
- impermeable to water in absence of ADH
- osmolarity reaches 50 mOsm/L
Where in the kidney tubule are most of the filtered electrolytes reabsorbed?
Proximal tubule reabsorbs about 65% of filtered electrolytes.
Is the proximal tubule permeable/impermeable to water, is sodium chloride reabsorbed or not, permeable/impermeable to urea, and is it affected by ADH?
> Highly permeable to water
> sodium chloride is reabsorbed
> NOT affected by ADH
> permeable to urea
What is the tubular osmolarity in the proximal tubule?
Tubular Osmolarity = 300 mOsm/L
Is the descending loop of Henle permeable/impermeable to water, is sodium chloride reabsorbed or not, permeable/impermeable to urea, and is it affected by ADH?
> Permeable to water
> Reabsorbs sodium chloride
> Urea also diffuses into the ascending limb
- comes from urea absorbed into interstitium from collecting ducts.
> NOT affected by ADH
Is the thick ascending loop of Henle permeable/impermeable to water, is sodium chloride reabsorbed or not, permeable/impermeable to urea, and is it affected by ADH?
> impermeable to water
> large amounts of sodium chloride, potassium, and other ions are actively transported from tubule into medullary interstitium
> impermeable urea
> NOT affected by ADH
True or False:
The tubular fluid becomes more dilute in the thin ascending loop of Henle.
What is the concentration in the thick ascending loop of Henle?
What is the tubular fluid concentration of filtrate in the early distal tubule?
What hormone determines the osmolarity of fluid in the late distal tubule and cortical collecting tubule?
Osmolarity of fluid depends on ADH
Is urea very permeable in the late distal tubule and cortical collecting tubule?
Urea is not very permeable in the late distal tubule and cortical collecting tubule.
What does the osmolarity of fluid depend on in the inner medullary collecting duct?
Osmolarity of fluid depends on ADH and surrounding intersitium osmolarity.
What osmolarity is the concentration gradient limited to in the countercurrent multiplier system?
concentration gradient is limited to 200 mOsm/L because of paracellular diffusion of ions back into the tubule.
True or False:
Descending tubules are impermeable to water and ascending tubules are permeable to water.
False - descending tubules are permeable to water and ascending tubules are impermeable to water
Is the ascending loop of Henle and distal cortical collecting tubule impermeable to urea?
What is the result if ADH concentration is increased in the cortical collecting tubule?
> water is reabsorbed from cortical collecting tubule
> urea is not very permeant here and becomes more concentrated in the tubule
What is the response in the medullary collecting duct if ADH concentration is increased?
> more water is reabsorbed, resulting in a higher concentration of urea
> higher concentration of urine results in diffusion of urea out of duct into interstitial fluid
> facilitated by UT-A1 and UT-A3 (ADH-activated) transporters
Explain how a high concentration of urea can be maintained in the collecting ducts even though urea is being reabsorbed.
> Role of Urea in Concentrating Urine
Simultaneous movement of water and urea out of the inner medullary collecting ducts maintains a high concentration of urea in the tubular fluid and, eventually, in the urine, even through urea is being reabsorbed.
What does the countercurrent exchange in the vasa recta prevent from being dissipated?
Vasa recta do not create the medullary hyperosmolarity but they prevent it from being dissipated.
During the formation of concentrated urine when ADH levels are high, what is reabsorbed in the inner medullary collecting ducts?
During the formation of dilute urine when ADH levels are low, what is reabsorbed in the inner medullary collecting ducts?
Which areas of the tubule system is the absorption of water dependent on the presence of ADH?
> Late distal tubule
> Cortical portion of collecting tubule and duct
> Medullary portion of collecting tubule and duct
Where specifically is ADH formed?
ADH is formed in magnocellular neurons in:
> supraoptic nuclei
> paraventricular nuclei
What is the function of the osmoreceptor cells?
Osmoreceptor cells are in the vicinity of the AV3V region.
- anterior region of third ventricle.
** The osmoreceptor-feedback mechanism is for regulating the extracellular fluid.
Listed the events that happen in the osmoreceptor-feedback mechansim if a water deficit is detected.
increase extracellular osmolarity
increase ADH secretion (from posterior pituitary)
increase plasma ADH
increase water permeability in distal tubules, collecting ducts
increase water reabsorption
decrease water excreted (which inhibits water deficit in beginning of mechanism).
What happens in isotonic volume depletion?
The osmolarity remains the same but volume decreases