Lecture 2 - Gustatory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Gustatory System Deck (80):
1

What are tastants?

Nonvolatile molecules that are soluble in saliva and activate taste receptors

2

What are the 5 taste modalities and what chemical they taste?

1. Salty: Na+
2. Sour: H+
3. Sweet: sugars
4. Umami: glutamate and other AAs
5. Bitter: many chemicals

3

Describe the threshold of taste modalities? Explain

High except for bitter because a lot of bitter chemicals are toxic so should be avoided

4

Does taste equal flavor?

NOPE

Flavor = taste + smell

5

What are tastants detected by? Where?

Taste receptors on the tongue, pharynx, epiglottis, upper part of esophagus

6

Which part of the mouth has the highest concentration of taste receptors?

Tongue

7

In what type of cells are taste receptors located? 2 names

Taste receptor cells (TRCs) = taste bud cells (TBCs)

8

What is a taste bud? Where is it located?

Combination of many TRCs on certain papillae

9

Describe the order from taste receptor to tongue

Taste Receptor ►Taste Receptor Cells ►Taste Bud ►Papillae ► Tongue

10

What are papillae?

Lingual epithelium protrusions

11

What are the 4 types of papillae? Which ones have taste buds?

1. Circumvillate papillae*
2. Foliate papillae*
3. Fungiform papillae*
4. Filiform papillae

12

Describe the structure of circumvillate papillae.

Connective tissue core (CT core) with taste buds in the grooves

13

Where does the name of circumvate papillae come from?

Form a circle and a sort of chevron (V shaped)

14

What % of taste buds do circumvate pupillae contain?

50%

15

Where does the name of foliate papillae come from?

Grooves along the lateral aspect of the tongue actually resemble red leaf like structures

16

Are the foliate papillae named for the shape of their connective tissue cores?

NOPE

17

What % of taste buds do foliate pupillae contain?

25%

18

Where does the name of fungiform papillae come from?

Sort of shaped like a mushroom and protrude from surface of the tongue

19

Where are fungiform pupillae located?

Anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

20

Where is the highest density of fungiform pupillae on the tongue? Why?

Tip because first part of tongue to taste food

21

What % of taste buds do fungiform pupillae contain?

25%

22

Which papillae with taste buds lack DEEP grooves along their sides? Therefore, where are their taste receptors?

Fungiform papillae

Taste receptors on apical region

23

What papillae comprise the majority of papillae on the tongue?

Filiform papillae

24

Why are the tongues of cat so rough?

Because their filiform papillae are highly keratinized

25

What are the 3 basic types of TRCs? Describe the function of each.

1. Type I: glial that function in a support role
2. Type II: signal transduction
3. Type III: signal transduction

26

How is the cell body of type II TRCs shaped?

Round

27

What type of taste receptors do Type II TRCs have? What tastants do they taste?

3 types of GPCRs:
1. Sweet
2. Bitter
3. Umami

AND 2 types of ionotropic receptors:
1. Salty
2. Sour

28

What type of taste receptors do Type III TRCs have? What tastants do they taste?

2 types of ionotropic receptors:
1. Salty
2. Sour

29

How is the cell body of type III TRCs shaped?

Narrow

30

What kind of receptor is the TRPM5 channel?

Multisensory receptor: can sense:
1. Temperature
2. IP3
3. Ca++

31

How are taste receptor cells connected to each other?

Tight junctions

32

What are the 2 domains of TRCs? Describe each.

1. Apical domain: exposed to tastants and where the taste receptors are

2. Basal domain

33

Describe the salt/sour transduction pathway.

1. Ion channels allow Na+ (Salt) or H+ (Sour) into the cell
2. Influx of Na+ or H+ causes TRC depolarization
3. Depolarization triggers voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels in the basal domain to open
4. Further depolarization triggers voltage-gated Ca+ channels in the basal domain to open
5. Calcium mediates synaptogamin and causes NT vesicle exocytosis

34

Describe the sweet/bitter/umami transduction pathway.

1. GPCRs are activated by sweet, bitter, or umami tastants
2. G-protein alpha subunit activates PLC to form IP3
3. IP3 activates TRPM5 channels located in the membrane of the basal domain to let Na+ in and also releases intracellular Ca+ stores, which further activates the TRPM5 channels
4. Ion influx through TRPM5 channels causes depolarization
5. Depolarization triggers voltage-gated Ca+ channels in the basal domain to open
6. Calcium mediates synaptogamin and causes NT vesicle exocytosis

35

How do the ionotropic salt/sour channels work? What is each called? 2 names for first one.

Directly convey tastants through the cell membrane causing depolarization:

1. Amiloride-sensitive Na+ leaky channels (ENAC=Epithelial sodium channels)

2. H+-sensitive TRP (Transient receptor potential) channels (PDK variant)

36

How many subunits in sweet and umami GPCRs?

Heterodimers

37

How many subunits in bitter GPCRs?

Monomer

38

What are the 2 subunits of sweet GPCRs?

T1R2 + T1R3

39

What are the 2 subunits of umami GPCRs?

T1R1 + T1R3

40

What is the name of the G-protein used by bitter GPCRs?

α-Gustducin

41

What is the 1 subunit of bitter GPCRs?

T2R

42

What kinds of afferent signaling is performed by Type II TRCs? Describe each.

1. Synaptic release of serotonin via GPCR signaling

2. Paracrine: purinergic receptors activated by non-synaptic ATP release: P2Y (Type III TRC) and P2X (afferent fiber) => IP3 activation pathway

3. Autocrine: purinergic receptors activated by non-synaptic ATP release: P2X

43

What kind of afferent signaling is performed by Type III TRCs? Explain.

Synaptic signaling with serotonin release on afferent fibers

44

Can one Type II TRC express multiple types of GPCRs at a time?

YUP

45

What % of TCRs express multiple receptor types aka are sensitive to multiple taste modalities?

90%

46

What are 3 factors contributing to the complexity of coding of taste signals?

1. TRCs express multiple receptor types
2. Taste buds contain multiple TRCs of varying types
3. Afferent fibers receive input from multiple TRCs (Type II and Type III) within a single taste bud and across multiple taste buds

47

Are taste buds across the tongue sensitive to all taste modalities?

YUP

48

How many taste buds on average on the tongue?

~10,000

49

What % of humans are supertasters? What does this mean?

20%

1. Have more than twice as many taste buds
2. Greater number of fungiform papillae on the tongue
3. Are usually more sensitive to bitter tastes due to being more likely of expressing TAS2R38 receptors to PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil)

50

How to determine if someone is a supertaster?

If a person has more than 30 fungiform papillae in a 1/4 inch circle

51

What do supertasters not like to eat? What is a consequence of this?

Fats, sugars, and strongly flavored foods/drinks (coffee, frosting, BBQ ribs, hoppy hand crafted beers)

Usually slimmer

52

What 2 cranial nerves have gustatory afferents? What parts do they each innervate? Where do they both synapse?

1. Facial nerve (2 branches):
- Greater petrosal: palate
- Chorda tympani: all 3 types of papillae all along the tongue

2. Glossopharyngeal nerve: circumvillate and foliate papillae at the back of the tongue

Synapse on rostral nucleus of solitary tract (rNST) in medulla

53

Describe the central taste pathway.

Gustatory receptors => gustatory afferents in cranial nerves => synapse at rostral nucleus of solitary tract (rNST) in medulla => synapse at ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) of thalamus (ipsilateral) => synapse at primary gustatory cortex => synapse at secondary gustatory cortex

54

What is another name for the rostral nucleus of solitary track (rNTS) in medulla?

Gustatory nucleus

55

Where is the primary gustatory cortex located?

Near hippocampus, at the anterior insula/frontal operculum

56

What is the function of the cNST of the medulla?

Cardiopulmonary function: breathing and heart rate

57

What confers emotional response to food?

rNTS also receives input from amygdala (and hypothalamus)

58

Where is the amygdala located?

Forebrain: medial temporal lobe

59

What is ageusia?

Loss of taste (for one or more tastants)

60

What is hypogeusia?

Loss of potentiation of taste (can't taste well)

61

What is dysgeusia? Cause?

Taste hallucination where foul, salty, rancid, or metallic taste sensation persists

Cause not well understood

62

What is dysgeusia sometimes accompanied by? Explain it.

Burning mouth syndrome = painful burning sensation in oral cavity

63

What are 4 causes for taste disorders (ageusia and hypogeusia)?

1. Radiation therapy for head/neck cancers
2. Head injury/surgery (eg: middle ear or wisdom teeth)
3. Poor oral hygiene/dental problems
4. Upper respiratory infections

64

How do we know if a chemical is a tastant?

If there is a taste receptor for it, it's a tastant

65

Where do the oral and nasal cavities meet?

The pharynx

66

Where are circumvillate papillae located?

Surface and V-shape in back of tongue

67

Where are foliate papillae located?

Lateral sides of tongue

68

How many folds does each foliate papillae have? What is this comparable to?

4-6

Comparable to the grooves of the circumvillate papillae

69

What are the 2 pathways Type III cells have to release serotonin?

1. Primary: salty/sour ionotropic receptor pathway

2. Secondary: P2YR pathway with IP3

70

What kind of tastant is quinine?

Bitter tastant

71

Is there a gustatory topography?

NOPE

72

What % of the pop is insensitive to PROP?

25%

73

How many isoforms of bitter receptor T2Rs?

30+

74

Where is the secondary gustatory cortex located?

Orbitofrontal cortex

75

Do the cells of the secondary gustatory cortex respond to multiple tastants?

Yes, they are multimodal

76

What other system does secondary gustatory complex interact with?

Limbic system

77

How is the organization of the gustatory cranial nerves different from other cranial sensory systems?

1. Multi-nerve
2. Apparent topography

78

What does non-synaptic release mean?

The release does not happen at a traditional synapse as no vesicles are used

79

Cells bodies of the facial nerve 2 branches with afferents mediating taste are found in which ganglion?

Geniculate ganglion

80

Cells bodies of the glossopharyngeal nerve branch with afferents mediating taste are found in which ganglion?

Petrosal ganglion