Lecture 20 - Histology of the kidney and urinary system Flashcards Preview

1060 Human form and function > Lecture 20 - Histology of the kidney and urinary system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 20 - Histology of the kidney and urinary system Deck (18):
1

What is the urinary system composed of ?

 

 
 

Two kidneys

Two ureters

One bladder

One urethra

 
 

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2

Short summary of how the urinary system works 

 

Urine produced in the kidneys is conducted by the ureters to the bladder where it is stored until voided via the urethra

 

3

What is the Hilum?

 

The hilum (in the kidney): site of entry and exit of the renal blood vessels and ureter. 

 

4

What is a nephron?

 

A nephron is the functional unit of the kidney; consists of renal corpuscle and renal tubule

 

Renal corpuscle – plasma filtration. consists of 2 structures:

Bowman’s capsule; distended, blind end

of the renal tubule

Glomerulus; packed capillaries that

invaginate Bowman’s capsule derive

from the afferent arteriole

 

Renal tubule – reabsorption.

extends from Bowman’s capsule to the

collecting duct. Convoluted in shape,

four histological-physiological zones

a: proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

b: loop of Henle

c: distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

d: collecting tubule

 

 

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5

Plasma filtrate from the glomerular capillaries passes through 3 layers before entering the renal tubule, which ?

 

Capillary endothelium – fenestrated

Glomerular basement membrane – thick (~ 300 nm) as formed by 2 basal laminae of podosomes & endothelia. Otherwise normal composition (collagen IV, laminin, proteoglycan rich in heparin sulphate)

Podocytes – interdigitating pedicels (primary and secondary processes). The secondary pedicels attach directly to the glomerular basement membrane.

Gaps between pedicels are filtration slits.

 

 

6

What is the ureter?

 

A muscular tube that conduct urine from the kidney to the bladder

 

7

What is the ureter formed of ?

 

Two layers of smooth muscle: Longitudinal (L); inner layer and really an elongated spiral. Circular (C); outer layer and also a (tight) spiral.

Lumen of ureter is lined by transitional epithelium, with deep lamina propria rich in collagen (LP).

An adventitia surrounds ureter: note the arteries (A) and veins (V).

 

 

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8

What are the 3 layers of the bladder ?

 

Wall of bladder consists of 3 smooth muscle layers (as does lower section of ureter) and abundant elastic fibres.

IL:   inner longitudinal

OC: outer circular

OL:  outermost longitudinal

The adeventitia (A) contains arteries, veins and lymphatics

 

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9

 

 

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Pyramid

 

10

 

 

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Papilla

 

11

 

 

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Acuate artery

 

12

 

 

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Interlobular artery

 

13

 

 

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Cut edge of capsule

 

14

 

 

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Interlobar artery

 

15

 

 

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Renal artery 

 

16

 

 
 

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Renal vein

 
 

17

 

 

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Renal pelvis

 

18

 

 

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Cut edge of pelvis