Lecture 3 Flashcards Preview

PT-853- Cardiopulmonary > Lecture 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (36):
1

What is important to ask in the patient history?

-presence of chest pain
-medical treatment sought and its outcome
-presence of palpitations
-presence of cardiac risks
-history of dizziness or syncope
-previous MI, cardiac studies or procedures

2

what are some risk factors for cardiovascular system?

-obesity
-age
-Hx
-high cholesterol
-HTN

3

What are some causes of dizziness/syncope?

-dehydration
-low blood sugar
-low HR

4

what causes elongation of the heart?

pulmonary HTN

5

What can a chest x-ray reveal?

-masses in lungs
-can see elongation of heart
-haze=emphysema/CHF

6

What heart sound do you hear during S1?

mitral and tricuspid closure (ventricular systole)

7

What heart sound do you hear during S2?

aortic and pulmonic areas

8

What heart sound do you hear during S3?

(Ventricular gallop) early rapid diastolic filling of ventricles

9

What heart sound do you hear during S4?

(atrial gallop) ventricular filling due to atrial contraction, low pitched sound heard late in diastole just before S1

10

what is a summation gallop

volume overload (dilated cardiomyopathy)

11

what are ejection sounds?

dilated aortic or pulmonary artery

12

What are mid systolic clicks

MV prolapse

13

what causes opening snaps?

mitral or tricuspid stenosis

14

What are 2 major goals for the exercise tolerance test?

1) detect presence of ischemia (angina)
2) determine functional aerobic capacity

15

what is the exercise tolerance test (ETT)?

examines the ability of the CV system to accommodate to increasing O2 demands (VO2)

16

What do METs measure?

basic O2 requirement at rest

17

What does MET stand for?

metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure

18

What does 1 MET equal in O2?

1 MET=3.4 ml O2/kg/min

19

What does 1 MET equal in functional terms?

1 MET=rest

20

What does the BRUCE protocol start at?

begins at 1.7 mph and 10% grade on treadmill at roughly 5 METs

21

what increases as workload increases for all modalities?

O2 increases

22

describe positive ETT?

there is a point when myocardial oxygen supply is not meeting the demand=ischemia (will get angina)

23

Describe negative ETT?

balance between oxygen supply and demand

24

Describe False-negative ETT?

ETT is interpreted as negative but there is ischemia

25

Describe False-positive ETT?

ETT is interpreted as positive but there is NO ischemia

26

What functional task is at 2 METs?

bed exercises (arm exercises in supine or sitting)

27

What functional task is at 4 METs?

walking on level surface

28

What functional task is at 6 METs?

stair climbing

29

What functional task is at 10 METs?

Jogging

30

what is the O2 requirement at 10 METs?

3.4(ml/O2/kg/min)x10 METs=34

31

What is the rule of thumb for progressing for Bruce protocol?

10 min, if they are able to sustain a pace for around 10 min they can progress maybe at the next visit.

32

when might they do an echocardiogram?

with a stress test

33

what is an echocardiogram?

use of ultrasound over the heart to see the chambers of the heart

34

What does the Thallium stress test help diagnose?

-extent of a coronary artery blockage
-prognosis of patients who've suffered a heart attack
-effectiveness of cardiac procedures done to improve circulation in coronary arteries
-causes of chest pain
-level of exercise that a patent can safely perform

35

What is a Persantine test?

use when a patient is unstable, decondition, unable to ambulate or cycle for stress test

36

what does the Persantine test do?

vasodilates the arterioles- as it would as you are exercising
-coronary aa with atherosclerosis do not dilate
-can detect areas of decreased blood flow thought imaging