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1

Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL)

Kwantitatiewe Kenmerk Lokus

A chromosomal region that contains one or more genes or genetic elements that contribute to phenotypic variation in a quantitative trait.

'n Chromosomale area wat een of meer gene of genetiese elemente bevat wat bydra tot die fenotipiese variasie van 'n kwantitatiewe kenmerk.

2

Linkage mapping / Linkage study

Koppelingskartering / koppelingstudie

Linkage mapping is the identification of QTL in families (individuals sharing alleles). Linkage study is a family-based method to search for a chromosomal location of a gene by demonstration co-segregation within related indivduals.

Koppelingskartering is die identifisering van QTL in families (individue wat allele deel). Koppelingstudies is 'n familie gebasseerde metode of vir chromosomale areas van 'n geen te soek deur ko-segregering tussen verwandte individue te bestudeer.

3

Association mapping / association study / association analysis

Assosiasie kartering / assosiasie studie / assosiasie analise

A method of mapping QTL with molecular markers in a sample of alleles from an outbred (unrelated) individuals.

'n Metode om QTL te vind met molekulêre merkers in 'n groep allele van 'n uitgeteelde (onverwandte) groep individue.

4

Stem cells

Stam selle

An undifferentiated cell capable of giving rise to a number of other cell types based on the age of the stem cell. (Totipotent = youngest; Pluripotent = mid; Multipotent = oldest).

'n Ongedifferensieërde sel wat die vermoë het om aan 'n hoeveelheid ander sel tipes oorsprong te gee; afhanklik van die ouderdom van die stam sel. (Totipotente = jongste; Pluripotente = mid; Multipotente = oudste).

5

Cloning

Klonering

Asexual form of reproduction. Clonal embryo may be inserted into a female's uterus to form a fully living organism (reporductive cloning), or be used to cultivate specific cell types or organs (therapeutic cloning).

Ongeslagtelike vorm van voortplanting. Klonale embrio kan in 'n vroulike organisme se uterus geplant word om 'n volgroeide lewendige organisme te vorm (voortplantingsklonering), of gebruik word om spesifieke sel tipes of organe te kweek (terapeutiese klonering).

6

Genetic Engineering

Genetiese Ingeneurswese

The deliberate modification of the genetic material of an organism to manipulate a specific phenotype. This may be done on early embryos (germline genetic engineering), where the modification will be passed to future generations; or specific somatic cells may be targeted to "replace" faulty alleles thereby creating a normal phenotype (somatic genetic engineering).

Die doelbewuste verandering van die genetiese materiaal van 'n organisme om 'n spesifieke fenotipe te manipuleer. Dit kan op vroeë embrios gedoen word (kiemlyn genetiese ingeneurswese), waar die aanpassing na die volgende generasie oorgedra sal word; of op spesieke somatiese selle toegepas word om foutiewe allele te "vervang" en sodoende 'n normale fenotipe te maak (somatiese genetiese ingeneurswese).