Lecture 7: Haematuria and Proteinuria Flashcards Preview

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Clinical Presentation and Clinical Problem associated with generalised Parenchymal kidney Disease

Clinical presentation:
Clinical Problem:


Clinical Presentation and Clinical Problem associated with generalised Collecting System Abnormality kidney Disease

Clinical presentation:
Clinical Problem:


Clinical Presentation and Clinical Problem associated with generalised Focal leson assoc. kidney Disease

Clinical presentation: Haematuria, backache
Clinical Problem:


Extremes of changed glomerular function

Blocked Leaky
Siv b/w
- may or may not ahve lead to a change in GFR


Blocked (glomerular) filter

Blocked filter = reduced GFR
- acute Kidney injury
- chronic kidney disease



Kidney handle 150L filtrate/day
Normal humans <150mg/24hrs.
Barriers to urinary protein:
1. Glomeruli - filters protein
2. Tubules - reabsorbs and filters


Affect of damaged glomerulus + High Blood Pressure

1. Increased leaked protein --> Proteinuria
2. High Blood pressure --> Increased damage to glomerulus --> worsening of situation/leakiness


Leaky filter

Leaking of blood or protein through glomerulus
Kidney function may be normal
Creatinine goes through glomerular filter, but not proteins
Note: every glomerulus will leak a little bit of protein into our urine



Mainly albumin
Other proteins in small amounts
1. 24 hour urine --> annoying
2. Albumin: creatinine
3. Protein : creatinine
Note: 2x ratios are good surrogates replacing 24hour urine collection



(albumin:creatinine ratio)
30-300 albumin/24 hours
ACR: x < 2.5 - y - 25 < z (mg/mmol/24 hours)
x= normal y= MA z= proteinuria
Causes: Diabetes Mellitus, Fever, Exercise, HF, Poor Glycemic control


Diabetes Mellitus relatively increases risk of..

Heat disease
Eye disease
Kidney fialure


Nephrotic Sydrome

Signs of nephosis: Proteinuria, Hypoalbuminaemia, odema
>3.5 g/day urinary protein
- eat protein but pee out more than they can eat
1. Frothy urine
2. Reduced metabolism (VLDL - LDL) --> Increased Tryglycerides
3. Blood clots --> Pulmonary embolism
4. Normal or impaired Renal function/GFR
5. Low plasma oncotic pressure --> Increased lipoprotein production by liver --> increased cholesterol production --> hypercholesterolemia --> increase risk of vascular disease


Mechanism for Oedma

Increased albumin excretion --> Food and liver cant keep up with making enough albumin --> Low levels of protein in blood --> Reduced vascular oncotic pressure --> Increased egression of fluid into interstitial space (in an attempt to balance colloid oncotic and hydrostatic pressure b/w BV and tissues


Reason for Nephrotic Syndrome Oedema

Decreased protein and increased water in vasculature --> Decreased vascular oncotic pressure and increased hydrostatic pressure --> trying to balance equilibrium by pushing water into Extracellular spaces (cannot move proteins through filter) --> odema


Starling's Equation

Flux = capillary permeability (intravascular hydrostatic pressure - interstitial hydrostatic pressure) - (intravascular oncotic pressure - interstitial oncotic pressure)
Capillary hydrostatic P: pushes fluid out of vessel if high
Capillary oncotic pressure : pulls fluid into vessel if high. Derived from plasma proteins


Glomerular injury --> Odema

Glomerular injury --> protein leakage into interstitial space (bowmans space) --> Decrease in Plasma volume and Cardiac output --> Arterial hypervoluemia --> stimulation of RAAS --> Sodium and H2O retention --> Expansion of sodium space --> Odema


Relationship b/w Lipids and cholesterol and Nephrotic syndrome

2. Reduced metabolism (VLDL - LDL) --> Increased Tryglycerides
5. Low plasma oncotic pressure --> Increased lipoprotein production by liver --> increased cholesterol production --> hypercholesterolemia --> increase risk of vascular disease



Risk factor of Nephrotic Syndrome
Pathophysiology not well understood (Risk 10%)
Nephrotic syndrome --> increase risk of DVT and pulmonary emboli --> clot in leg/femoral artery --> swollen, red and painful --> risk of embolus --> travels to lungs --> right heart failure --> death



Reduced antibody production and decreased complement pathway
Increased bacterial infection and chicken pox in children


Protein malnutrition

Risk in nephrotic syndrome/ Microalbuminuria / proteinuria
Protein malnutrition --> wasted, lost weight and unwell


Diabetic Neuropathy

Increased lumps of matrix int he glomerulus = leakage of protein into the urine
Type I Hyperglycaemia --> high serum glucose --> increased GFR/hyperfiltration due to high hydrostatic pressure
- IF have good glycaemic and BP control can have normal GFR w/o protein leaking
BUT Low GFR --> leak protein into urine Preceding decline due to kidney damage/Nephrotic syndrome
** graph



Often due to glomerular disease
Other major cause is diabetes (would just have protein in blood)
Blood or protein in urine (only protein in DM)
Main treatment is controlling BP (ACE inhibitors)



Pre renal, renal, post renal
Rena; = intrinsic (specific to kidneys) AKI --> Acute Tubular necrosis (from prerenal/drugs) --> Acute glomerulonephritis --> may have proteinuria


Acute Tubular Necrosis

Due to:
1. Prerenal inadequate treatment
2. Drugs/toxins
No blood or protein in urine
Just decreased GFR (renal function) due to blocked filter


Acute Glomerulonephritis

= Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis = Acute Renal Failre
Leaky glomeruli AND Blocked (fluid overload): Blood +/- protein
May have nephritic syndrome


Nephritic Syndrome

Occurs in Acute/Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis/ Acute Renal failure
Leaky + Increased GFR
Fluid overload as only able to excrete a limited amount of fluid per day --> peripheral and pulmonary oedema
1. Unwell
2. Oliguric
3. Hypertensive --> 4. Volume overload --> pulmonary/peripheral oedema
5. Signs of other Multi-System disease:
a) haemoptysis b) rash c) arthritis d) fever
6. MSU (blood/protein) --> Red Clast cells


Diagnosis of Nephritis syndrome/ Rapidly progressive/Acute Glomerulonephritis

1. Kidney Biopsy
2. Blood in urine (sometime protein)
--> Red Clast cells = Broken down RBC all clumped together


Nephrotic syndrome vs nephritic syndrome

NephrOtic syndrome: Oedema, Proteinuria, Hypoalbuminuria, Renal Function/GFR can be normal or impaired
Nephritic syndrome: ARI, Hypertension --> Fluid overload --> Pulmonary and peripheral oedema, RBC in urine --> Clast cells (damaged RBC cell clumps) in blood sample



Micro - in most people
Macro - clots if severe
Note: If blood in urine --> NEED TO EXCLUDE CANCER
- high chance is catch early


Origins of Haematuria

Bleeding from somewhere in urinary tract:
1. Glomerular (e.g. glomerulonephritis)
2. Collecting System (tumour/stone)
3. Focal lesion (ureters/stone/bladder/urethra)