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Flashcards in Lecture notes week 1 Deck (115):
1

What is are the essential components of a comprehensive safety program?

procedures, precautions, training (use of equipment, location of safety equipment and supplies- eye wash, fire extinguisher, spill clean up kit, biohazard disposal containers - sharps, protective gloves), must be in writing and accessible, safety signs- no eating/drinking

2

What does OSHA do or require?

mandates specific laboratory practices
must be incorporated into the laboratory safety policy
Some states have regulations superseding federal OSHA guidelines

3

What are the OSHA guidelines?

comply with all relevant OSHA standards
correct any safety or health hazards
Employee education and training - chemical, health, &safety hazards
Provide PPE
Maintain accurate records of injuries and illness
Post OSHA posters, citations, injuries, and illness

4

What does OSHA poster focus on?

Job safety and health

5

What topics fall under hazard control?

engineering controls - change work environment to eliminate/minimize hazards (waste scavenging systems)
Administrative controls
procedure controls
PPE

6

How does a business control exposure to hazardous chemical in the work place?

implement chemical hygiene policies which includes - detail hazards in workplace, training, documentation, use of PPE, monitor exposure

7

What is the hazard communication standard?

employees must know exposure hazards, proper labeling on containers, material safety data sheets (MSDS) - must be accessible

8

What information is provided by the manufacturers that is needed on a MSDS?

- Manufacturers name and contact info
- hazardous ingredients
- identifying information
- physical/chemical characteristics (how it affects us in how we use it)
- fire and explosion hazard data
- reactivity data
-health hazard data
- precautions for safe handling and use
- control measures

9

What is the rule about container labeling?

When chemicals are removed from primary containers into another container, a secondary label must be applied

10

What protocols should be in place for blood-borne pathogens?

human - rare in vet. practice
zoonotic - protocols to prevent exposure (PPE, proper disinfection, proper disposal)

11

What PPE is needed in vet. practice?

eye protection
protective clothing
shield/barrier

12

What are the biosafety levels?

Level 1, level II, Level III, Level IV

13

What is biosafety level 1?

normally does not cause disease in humans
no specific requirements for handling or disposal - vaccines

14

What is biosafety level 2?

potential to cause human disease if handled incorrectly
precautions vary with agent (ingestion or puncture) - salmonella

15

What is biosafety level 3?

potential to cause serious and potentially lethal disease
aerosol respiratory transmission
very specific requirements
Ex: Tuberculosis

16

What is biosafety level 4?

unlikely for most employees to have exposure
high risk of life-threatening disease
maximum containment facilities

17

What protocol is needed for shipping hazardous materials?

regulations by U.S. Dept. of transportation
Category A - high risk - known or likely to cause disease in humans - permanent or life threatening diseases
Category B - low risk - most samples in this category

18

What is the way to ship specimens?

specific labeling, leak-proof containers, surrounded by watertight material, absorbent material between layers

19

What should a laboratory design be like?

separate from other hospital operations
Large enough to accommodate equipment and personnel - separate counters for centrifuges and analyzers because of shaking centrifuges
Room temp. and draft control
Sink, storage, electrical supply, internet access

20

How do you know if you can trust a website?

- funding and sponsor ship
- timeline
- information about the source
- authors and contributors
- references and sources
- expert review

21

What is need for an in-house lab?

a variety of equipment
factors that affect equipment needs
minimum equipment - microscope, refractometer, microhematocrit centrifuge, clinical centrifuge

22

What does the refractometer measure?

AKA total solids meter - measures the refractive index of a solution - the function of the concentration of solids in the medium
Calibrated to zero - using distilled water
Measures specific gravity
Protein concentration of plasma

23

What are the most common pipettes?

transfer, graduated
others - TD pipettes - delivers large amounts,TC pipettes - holds samples securely in microliter amounts
use an appropriate size

24

What temperature should incubators be set at?

for microbiology 37 degrees Celcius -best for pathogenic bacteria

25

Incubators need?

thermometer, humidity control
In larger or specialized facilities need controls for Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen

26

What are water baths and heat blocks needed for?

some assays, coagulation tests, and blood banking procedures require heat
incubators may not be appropriate

27

What are the types of water baths and heat blocks?

simple water bath, circulating water bath, and waterless bead bath, heat block - one tube size

28

What is a aliquot mixer?

mixes the blood so it doesn't clot

29

What are some types of microscopes?

compound light microscope
electron microscope
fluorescent microscope
phase-contract microscope
dark field microscope

30

What does a compound light microscope do?

generates an image by using a combination of lenses

31

What does a compound light microscope have?

optical tube length - distance between objective and the eyepiece
mechanical stage
coarse and fine focus

32

What are the lens systems?

ocular, objective

33

Describe the ocular lens?

located in the eyepiece, usually 10x, binocular and monocular

34

Describe the objective lens?

3-4 lenses with different magnification, 4x - scanning, 10x - low power, 40x high dry (highest magnification without oil
100x - oil immersion - no slide cover

35

How do you determine magnification?

total magnification can be calculated - multiply ocular magnification and objective magnification

36

define biohazard.

biological substances that contain infectious agents that pose a threat to human health

37

Define bloodborne pathogens.

infectious agents that are present in the bloodstream

38

Define chemical hygiene plan.

a document that contains details about the specific chemical hazards present in the workplace

39

Defnine Engineering controls.

safety procedures focused on changing the work environment to eliminate or minimize exposure to a hazard

40

Define Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

informational material that contains detailed data safety information about hazardous materials found in a particular place of a business (an OSHA mandate)

41

Define OSHA.

Occupational safety and health administration - a U.S. government agency that mandates specific laboratory practices that must be incorporated into a laboratory's safety policy

42

Define PPE.

Personal protective equipment - items such as eye equipment and other protective clothing, shields, and barriers that are designed to minimize exposure to hazards in the workplace

43

define zoonoses.

diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans

44

Define centrifuge.

used to separate substances of different densities that are in a solution. - spins at high speeds, which pushes the heaviest components in the sample to the bottom of the tube according to their densities

45

Liquid portion present in a sample that has been centifuged is called? The solid portion is called?

supernatant (plasma or serum from a blood sample)
sediment

46

Two types of centrifuges usually used in vet. practices are called?

microhematocrit and clinical centrifuge

47

Clinical centrifuges are one of two types, depending on the style of the centrifuge head, what are they?

a horizontal centrifuge head - AKA swinging-arm type and an angle centrifuge head
- have specimen cups that hang vertically when the centrifuge is a rest but during centrifugation, the cups swing out to a horizontal position.

48

What are 2 disadvantages of a horizontal centrifuge head?

at excessive speeds (greater than 300 - revolutions/min) air friction causes heat buildup, which can damage delicate specimens
- Some remixing of the sediment with the supernatant may occur when th specimen cups fall back to the vertical position

49

What is the angle centrifuge head?

specimen tubes are inserted through drilled holes that hold the tubes at a fixed angle, usually of approx. 52 degrees

50

What is a horizontal head centrifuge?

- have specimen cups that hang vertically when the centrifuge is a rest but during centrifugation, the cups swing out to a horizontal position.

51

What type of centrifuge holds capillary tubes?

a microhematocrit centrifuge

52

What advantages does the angle centrifuge head have over the horizontal head centrifuge?

the angle centrifuge can rotate at higher speeds without excessive heat buildup

53

Define refractometer?

AKA - total solids meter - used to measure the refractive index of a solution

54

Define refraction?

the bending of light rays as they pass from on medium (ie air) into another medium (ie. urine) with a different optical density

55

Define degree of refraction?

a function of the concentration of solid material in the nedium

56

What is the most common use of a refractometer?

for determination of the specific gravity of urine or other fluids

57

What type of microscope is needed in a vet. practice?

binocular compound light microscope

58

The compound microscope consists of what two types of lenses?

ocular and objective lenses

59

What objective lens is considered low dry?

10x

60

What objective lens is considered high dry?

40x

61

How do you determine the total magnification of the object you are viewing on a microscope?

multiply the magnification of the ocular lens and objective lens

62

What is the most important components of the microscope?

the objective lenses

63

Objective lenses are characterized as one of three types, what are they?

achromatic, semi-apochromatic, and apochromatic (the latter two are primarily used in research settings)

64

What is a type of achromatic objective lense?

planachromatic lens - aka - flat field lens - provides a more uniform field of focus from the center to the periphery of the microscopic image

65

Define fluorescent microscope?

a type of microscope that is capable of viewing fluorescent particles, such as an antibody labeled with specific fluorescent dye

66

Define compound microscope?

a microscope that generates an image by using a combination of lenses

67

Define Dark field microscope?

a type of microscope that is used primarily in reference laboratories, especially for the viewing of unstained specimens

68

Define phase-contrast microscope?

a type of light microscope that involves a special condenser and objective lens with a phase-shifting ring; it is used to visualize small differences in refractive index as differences in intensity or contrast.

69

Define numerical aperature.

the measure of the efficiency of a microscope objective lenses; it is proportional to the square root of the amount of light that enters the instrument

70

When viewing through a compound light microscope, an object appears?

upside down and reversed (the actual right side of an image is seen as its left side. movement of the slide by the mechanical stage is also reversed - when the stage is moved to the left, the object appears to move to the right)

71

Define resolution (in regards to a microscope).

the degree of detail visible in the images and the clarity of the image
- measured in pixels, the greater the degree of detail and clarity and the more the image can be enlarged without loss of clarity

72

What are the 3 basic units for weight in the metric system?

volume, weight (mass), and length

73

What are the units assigned to the basic measurements of length weight (mass), and volume?

length - meter
weight (mass) - gram
volume - liter

74

Define ratio.

the amount of one thing relative to another or the number of parts relative to a whole.

75

Concentrations of dilutions are usually expressed as ____ of the original volume to the new volume.

ratios

76

What is the only ratio that is usually expressed as a decimal in vet. technology?

specific gravity

77

Define specific gravity.

a ratio expressed in decimal form that represents the weight of a substance relative to the weight of the same volume of water

78

Results from any tests involving this 1:10 dilution must then be multiplied by __ to yield the correct result for the undiluted sample.

10

79

Define dilution

the process of making a solution weaker or less concentrated

80

SI units (internationsal system of units) are designated for what 7 different types of measurements?

length, mass, time, electric current, temperature, luminosity and quantity. In a vet clinical lab those of importance are mass, temperature, and quantity

81

What are serial dilutions needed for?

when performing immunologic tests or when preparing manual calibration curves for some equipment.

82

If a standard solution of bilirubin contains 20 mg/dL and is duluted 1 : 5, 1 : 10, 1 : 20, then the concentration of each dilution would be?

4 mg/dL, 2 mg/dL, 1 mg/dL

83

Define scientific notation?

a method of handling very large or very small numbers

84

Scientific notation involves the use of exponents to represent powers of ___ for a given number.

10

85

The most used temperature measurement system in the vet. clinical laboratory is the ____ scale?

Celsius

86

Converting to kelvins is done by adding ___ to the temperature in Celcius.

273

87

Kelvins dow not involve the use of ____ rather, only the letter ___ is used.

degrees, K

88

Define quality assurance.

procedures established to ensure that clinical testing is performed in compliance with accepted standards and that the process and results are properly documented

89

What terms are frequently used to describe the quality control, and standards for any quality control program?

accuracy, precision, and reliability

90

Define accuracy.

refers to how closely results agree with the true quantitative value of the constituent (component)

91

Define precision.

the magnitude of random errors and the reproducibility of measurements

92

Define reliability.

the ability of a method to be accurate and precise

93

What are some factors that affect accuracy and precision?

test selection, sample quality, technician skill, electrical surges, and equipment maintenance

94

Define lipemia.

the presence of fatty material in plasma or serum

95

Define icteric.

abnormal yellowish discoloration of plasma or serum

96

Define hemolyzed.

red appearance of a fluid sample (i.e., serum, urine) as a result of the destruction of erythrocytes

97

Define standards.

non-biological materials used for calibrating equipment

98

To ensure reliability, control samples must be tested when?

when a new assay is set up, when a new technician runs the test, when a new lot number of reagents is used,or when an instrument is known to perform erratically

99

Other factors other than disease influence the results of laboratory tests, they are?

preanalytic, analytic, or postanalytic

100

Postanalytic factors are?

related to data entry and record keeping

101

Analytic variables affect the ______ by which the analyte is measured by the instrument.

procedure

102

Preanalytic variables are?

biologic or nonbiologic

103

Biologic variables are?

factors that are inherent to the patient, such as breed, age, and gender (non-controlled factors)
or factors that can be controlled such as drawing the blood sample (ensuring the animal is properly fasted)

104

Nonbiologic variables are?

those related to clerical errors (incorrect labeling, delays in transporting samples, incorrect calculations, transcription errors, and sampling wrong patient) and sample collection and handling

105

Hazards associated with specific chemicals are described in the?

Material safety data sheets

106

The bacterial agent that causes toxoplasmosis is classified as having which biohazard level?

II

107

Regulations related to the safe shipment of potentially hazardous or infectious materials in the U.S. are mandated by the?

U.S. Dept of transportation

108

T or F Chemicals transferred into secondary containers always require special hazard labeling.

false

109

T or F The use of PPE (e.g., lead-lined x-ray gloves) is optional.

false

110

The scope and extent of worker training and the documentation of that training are contained in the?

chemical hygiene plan

111

T or F Most diagnostic samples from veterinary patients sent to outside laboratories for analysis fall into Category B.

True

112

Infectious canine hepatitis is classified as which biohazard level?

I

113

The government agency that is responsible for enforcing safety regulations in the workplace is?

OSHA

114

The use of a fume hood when handing chemicals is an example of ____ (what type of controls) that minimize workplace hazards.

Engineering controls

115

Instrument maintenance log needs to have what information?

instrument name, serial number, model number, purchase date