Lecture Pain and Walking Aids Flashcards Preview

PT - Ortho Class 1 > Lecture Pain and Walking Aids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture Pain and Walking Aids Deck (30):

define pain

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.

*note this definition says absolutely nothing about the cause of pain!!


define nociception

The neural process of encoding and processing noxious stimuli. Nociceptive pain = Pain arising from activation of nociceptors


define nociceptor

A sensory receptor of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system that is capable of transducing and encoding noxious stimuli.


define hyperalgesia

Increased pain from a stimulus that normally provokes pain.


define allodynia

Pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain.


define sensitization

Increased responsiveness of neurons to their normal input or neuron response to normally sub-threshold inputs. (peripheral and central)


define neuropathic pain

Pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system.


what is the biopsychosocial model of pain?

- pain influenced by 3 factors, biological, psychological, social


A image thumb

what are Pain-related biological, psychological and social inputs are processed by?

the brain

A image thumb

is pain an output or inpot of the brain? why?


- inputs don't cause pain rather pain is dependant on how the brain responds to inputs

-How our brains respond to inputs is a unique function of who we are (genetics + learning)


what are the three neuron pathways?

A image thumb

what can cause nociception?

•Soft tissue strains/sprains

•Peripheral nerve irritation




describe nociception vs pain (1 word)

nociception = neural process

pain = experience


can nociception alone cause pain?

NO. nociception alone is neither sufficient nor necessary for pain

- phantom limb pain (no nociception, but pain)

- focusing on other things or shock (nociception but no pain)


name some influencing factors of pain associated with nociception and some not associated with nociception

A image thumb

describe sensitivity to physical activity for those with OA and chronic pain

OA: increased discomfort with longer walking

chronic pain: High SPA = A progressive increase in pain during a standardized physical activity


what does sensitivity to physical activity predict?

A image thumb

what are the implications for exercise prescription considering sensitivity to physical acivity?

A image thumb

order of stability for walking aids?

parallel bars


axillary crutches

forearm crutches

two canes

one cane


what requires higher energy demand, standard or wheeled walkers?


The oxygen demand per meter is increased by 104% and the heart rate per meter by 98


what percent of BW does a cane accept?



describe the timing of peak force in use of canes

Timing of peak force application may differ depending on functional use

1) Late-stance & toe off – compensate for p-flex

For example, patients with ankle arthroplasty apply peak cane force late in the stance phase suggesting that the cane is use to push forward.

2) early-stance Heel strike – reduce impact force (e.g., hip OA)

Patients with degenerative joint disease of the hip apply peak force early in the stance phase, suggesting that the cane was used for restraint.


how to use a cane or 1 crutch

Placing the cane on the ipsilateral side to the leg that needs assistance,  increases the torque that the hip abductors need to stabilize the pelvis.

A image thumb

how to carry objects using cane (with hip problems, with back problems)

A image thumb

how to adjust crutches

A image thumb

describe the 3 walkign gaits for assistive devices

A image thumb

what percent of people abandon their assistive device after getting it? why?


- more than 50% of those people say its difficult and risky to use

- social 

- discomfort or pain with device


one study said use of mobility aid actually increases fall rick - why?

•Only those with balance impairment, functional decline, and/or falling risk are likely to be using a mobility aid

•May increase risk of falling by causing tripping or by disrupting balance control through other mechanisms (e.g., by competing for attentional resources)

•Walker doesn't allow for a stepping response

•Have to pick up device and move it


what are biomechanical benefits of supportive devices?

•Increases the BOS

•Allow stabilizing reaction forces at the hands

•In contralateral hand – reduces compressive force on hip force by up to 60%


what are demands or reverse biomechanical effects of supportive devices?

A image thumb