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Exam 3- Anatomy > Leg > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leg Deck (56)
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1

muscles that compose dynamic support of longitudinal arch

Tibialis posterior
Tibialis anterior
Flexor hallucis longus
Fibula's longus
Intrinsic plantar muscles

2

muscles that compose passive support of longitudinal arch

plantar aponeurosis
long plantar ligament
short plantar ligament
plantar calcaneonavicular/spring ligament

3

posterior compartment of the leg (general)

flexors, calf
transverse septa divides it into two groups:
1. superficial posterior
2. deep posterior

tibial nerve and tibial vessels are deep to transverse crural intermuscular septum

4

muscles of the superficial posterior group (3)

gastrocnemius
soleus (triceps surae)
plantaris

5

muscles of the deep posterior group (4)

popliteus
flexor hallucis longus
flexor digitorum longus
tibialis posterior

6

Gastrocnemius heads

most superficial of the superficial posteriors

crosses knee and ankle joints

Medial and Lateral head

medial is larger, starts above medial femoral condyle (lateral is above lateral condyle)

both insert and compose achilles tendon

7

actions of gastrocnemius

plantar flexion and flexes leg at knee joint

flexes the knee below the knee

8

fabella

some patients have it, seismoid bone found close to proximal attachment

potentially provides leverage for lateral head of gastrocnemius

if fractured, it may accompany total knee replacement

a rare cause of posterolateral knee pain

9

soleus (general)

posterior, superficial group

broad, flat, mutlipennate muscle

horseshoe shaped origin (soleal line of tibia, head of fibula)

inserts into achilles tendon

10

where is the achilles tendon? what muscle tendons compose it?

it is located on the posterior surface of calcaneus

composed of muscles that attach to the tendon calcaneus

soleus, gastrocnemius (lateral and medial heads), plantaris (if present)

11

triceps surae

tripartite muscle that is formed between the two heads of the gastrocnemius and the soleus

forms the calf prominence

12

action of the soleus

plantar flexion

13

plantaris (general)

superficial posterior

small muscle, often absent (short belly and long tendon)

attaches to the lateral supracondylar line, runs between gastrocnemius and souls, attaches to the achilles tendon

14

function of plantaris

weak plantarflexion and leg flexion

possibly proprioceptive organ for foot position due to high density of proprioceptive receptors

15

clinical application of plantaris

used commonly in reconstructive hand tendon surgery due to little affect on knee/ankle movements

often ruptures during violent ankle movements (sudden dorsiflexion of ankle) common in basketball players, sprinters, and ballet dancers

16

popliteus (general)

deep posterior group

thin flat triangular muscle, deep to plantaris

forms inferior floor of popliteal fossa

inserts on lateral side of leg, origins on tibia

17

functions of popliteus

unlocks extended leg by laterally rotating femur on stationary tibia

flexes leg weakly

18

arteries of the popliteal fossa

superior medial and superior lateral genicular arteries (superior to medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius)

inferior medial genicular artery (deep to medial gastrocnemius)

inferior lateral genicular artery (deep to plantaris, superficial to popliteus)

19

flexor hallucis longus (general)

largest deep posterior

lies deep to soleus
attaches to inferior fibula and passes inferiorly to deep flexor retinaculum

occupies shallow groove on posterior surface of sustentaculum tali of calcaneus

crosses deep to FDL tendon in sole of foot, approaches great toes between sesamoid bones in FHB tendons

inserts at base of distal phalanx of great toe

20

actions of flexor hallucis longus

flexes great toe
plantar flex foot at ankle joint

21

flexor digitorum longus (general)

deep to soleus and posterior to tibia

attaches to tibia and passes posterior to tibias posterior
diagonally in sole of food, superficial to f.h.l.

attaches at base of lateral four digits

22

functions of flexor digitorum longus

flexes lateral four digits
plantar flexes foot at ankle joint

23

tibialis posterior (general)

deepest posterior crural muscle

lies between F.D.L. and F.H.L.

attaches at the interosseous membrane, and both tibia and fibula

passes anterior to FDL

distally attaches to various tarsal and metatarsal bones

24

functions of tibialis posterior

inversion
plantar flexion

25

tibial nerve supplies which muscles of posterior compartment?

soleus
gastrocnemius
plantaris
F.H.L.
F. D.L.
popliteus
tibialis posterior

ALL OF THEM

26

tibial nerve pathway through the leg

passes with posterior tibial vessels
deep to soleus
posterior to tibialis posterior

leaves posterior by passing deep to flexor retinaculum between medial malleolus and calcaneous

divides into medial and lateral plantar nerves

27

blood supply of posterior compartment

posterior tibial artery

28

pathway of posterior tibial artery

begins near inferior popliteus (deep to soleus)

gives rise to fibular artery

passes inferomedially on posterior surface of tibias posterior with tibial nerve

runs deep to flexor retinaculum

ends by dividing into medial and lateral plantar arteries

29

fibular artery

descends from distal popliteus obliquely toward fibula

vascularizes posterior and lateral compartments

30

largest branch of posterior tibial artery

fibular artery