leprosy is a __________disease affecting _____ and _____ tissues
chronic granulomatous disease affecting peripheral and superficial tissues
where does leprosy mostly infect?
how is M. leprae different from M. tuberculosis?
M. leprae cannot be grown on agar media or in cell culture
hosts of M. leprae?
amardillos and humans
what are the two major forms of leprosy?
tuberculoid and lepromatous
how is M. leprae transmitted?
via small droplets from nasal secretions of lepromatous leprosy pts
infectivity of leprosy? incubation time?
infectivity is low, incubation period is estimated to be 2-7 years
what does contraction of the disease require
prolonged contact with an infected person
where is leprosy common in the world?
India and Brazil
describe M. leprae
an acid fast bacillus that likes cool temperatures.obligate intracellular parasite of primarily of macrophages and Schwann cells --> can also invade peripheral neurons
which type of leprosy lacks Th1 mediators?
disease of tuberculoid leprosy?
single skin lesions on the face, limbs, and buttocks
number of organisms present in tuberculoid leprosy lesions? is the patient contagious?
low #, pt. not contagious
prognosis of tuberculoid leprosy
tuberculoid lesions can heal spontaneously and prognosis is good
how does lepromatous leprosy progress? what are the first signs of disease?
progressive disease with the first signs being edema, and rhinitis
where are the lesions of lepromatous leprosy? think: FBL
extensive on face, buttocks, and limbs
where on body can you observe acid-fast staining bacilli from scrapings
inner ear infection of lepromatous leprosy
what type of damage can lepromatous leprosy cause?
SEVERE damage! perforation of the nasal septum and collapse of the nose due to cartilage loss, loss of fingers to neurotrophic atrophy, atrophy of testticles
how does lepromatous leprosy spread?
how is leprosy diagnosed? why?
clinically b/c organisms cannot be grown in culture
how is the diagnsosis confirmed?
skin biopsies and the detection of acid-fast staining bacilli
is antibiotic resistance a problem? what is done about it?
yes; multidrug therapy
which drug combo can cure tuberculoid leprosy?
sulfone + rifampin = cure of tuberculoid leprosy w/6 mos. treatment
tx for lepromatous form
clofazimine is added and tx lasts at least 2 years
for the lepromaotus form, what can be given as prophylaxis to kids in close contact with lepromatous pts?
what is the key to prevention?
early diagnosis and treatment
M. leprae is an obligate intracellular parasite of primarily of __________ and ____________ --> can also invade peripheral neurons
M. leprae is an obligate intracellular parasite of primarily of macrophages and Schwann cells --> can also invade peripheral neurons